Broccoli cabbage is a tasty, healthy and unpretentious plant in the care. In order to get a good harvest of this crop in your garden, it is sufficient to follow the recommendations on cultivation and care.
Asparagus cabbage, or broccoli, as it is most commonly called in everyday life, has invariably been included in the diet of the Italians for about 1.5 thousand years, but in the middle lane it has not yet received much distribution. And in vain! This is a delicious, nutritious and vitamin vegetable. No wonder the average European for the year eats at least 5 kg of broccoli.
The content of vitamins and minerals broccoli is many times greater than other vegetables and fruits. Scientists have proven that regular consumption of this cabbage reduces the risk of developing cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and prevents the accumulation of cholesterol in the body. In addition, broccoli is also a diet product. It is low-calorie, but nutritious due to its protein content, which is close to meat in composition.
Broccoli is valuable as a dietary product.
Perhaps the reason for the unpopularity of asparagus cabbage in our area lies in the fact that many vegetable growers mistakenly consider this “Italian” capricious and picky in their care. And this is not the case again! If you follow the simple rules of growing broccoli, it can tolerate even return spring frosts.
Choosing a proven broccoli variety
Like any vegetable crop, the yield of broccoli varies depending on the variety. If in the homeland of asparagus cabbage you can choose from two hundred varieties, then we have at best a dozen of three. And if you really face it, the store is likely to offer you only 1-2 litters of broccoli. And no one guarantees that they will be champion varieties. The choice, frankly, is small!
It looks like broccoli seeds
If you have the opportunity to look for seeds from different distributors, we recommend staying on this list of high-quality varieties and hybrids that can boast of undemanding care:
- Batavia F1 (early hybrid, inflorescence weight can reach 2 kg);
- Curly head (early variety, inflorescences weighing up to 0.5 kg);
- Marathon F1 (late ripe hybrid, fructifies until November);
- Monterey F1 (large-fruited hybrid - inflorescences weighing up to 2 kg);
- Moscow souvenir F1 (early ripe hybrid, inflorescence weight up to 0.5 kg).
Growing broccoli in the open field
If you do not have the time and desire to mess around with seedlings, sow broccoli seeds right in the open ground as soon as the average daily temperature rises to 10 ° C and stably lasts a week. In the middle lane, it is usually the end of April - the beginning of May.
You can navigate not only the scale of the thermometer, but also the state of the apple trees. If their kidneys are already awake, then broccoli can be sown.
Asparagus cabbage likes well-lit areas, so the bed is preferably located from east to west.
Contrary to the fastidious stereotype of broccoli, it can be successfully grown in open ground
Broccoli can not be planted on the garden immediately after other types of cabbage. The most "desirable" predecessors for this crop are tomatoes, cucumbers, legumes.
Broccoli can grow on any type of soil, but before planting it is advisable to introduce one of these fertilizers:
- humus (4-5 kg per 1 sq. M)
- compost (4-5 kg per 1 sq. M)
- infusion of chicken manure (1:20)
- wood ash (1 item per 1 sq. M)
In a bed do shallow holes (about 1 cm) according to the scheme 60 x 40 cm and close them up with 2-3 seeds. Top well sprinkled with wet compost, carefully watered with warm water (so as not to wash the seeds out of the ground) and cover with foil.
If you are worried about the return spring frosts, it is advisable to cover the beds with spunbond. Under a white non-woven broccoli hideout can take a drop in temperature to -7 ° C.
With a seedless way of growing broccoli begins to ripen from the second decade of July.
Growing broccoli through seedlings
This method of growing asparagus cabbage will suit you if you want to start harvesting in June.
Broccoli are sown on seedlings from the beginning of April in boxes, sealing up seeds to a depth of about 1 cm. If the thermometer stably holds above zero, boxes with sown seeds need not be kept at home. Containers can be covered with cling film to protect them from drying out and night frost, and put in a greenhouse.
At temperatures up to 10 ° C shoots appear in 10 days. If the weather is warm outside (15-18 ° C), the shoots will spawn in 3-4 days.
After another 1.5-2 weeks, 3-4 leaflets should appear on the seedlings. In this phase, they are seated in individual containers or directly into the greenhouse or greenhouse, if the temperature is consistently warm.
Broccoli seedlings dive in the phase of 5-6 true leaves
The main rule of growing asparagus cabbage is to water it in a timely and generous manner. To make your life easier, you can organize on the bed a system of automatic irrigation. For example, dig a two-liter bottle of water between every two plants, without twisting the cap completely. If the beds on top of the mulch, moisture in the soil will last a week.
Broccoli should be watered every 2 days, and in hot weather - up to 2 times a day
Broccoli, like white cabbage, can suffer from cabbage butterflies and cruciferous flea. To protect the early crops from pests, they are pollinated with tobacco dust and covered with spunbond.
You can also plant tansy, marigolds, calendula, nasturtiums, and celery next to a cabbage patch. The smell of these plants repels insect pests.
Top dressing broccoli
Even if the quality of the soil on your site does not cause any complaints, it is advisable to regularly feed broccoli. For this, she generously thanked you a good harvest.
Broccoli needs regular organic and mineral supplements
Fertilizers are applied as follows:
1. If you didn’t bring organic matter directly to the garden bed, after rooting seedlings (in case of seedless growing - when the seedlings are stronger), feed broccoli with chicken manure (1:20) or rotted manure (1:10).
2. Broccoli re-fed with organic two weeks later after the first fertilization.
3. The third feeding plan when on cabbage inflorescences began to form. At this stage, broccoli needs a mineral complex. In 10 liters of water is diluted:
- 40 g of superphosphate;
- 20 g of ammonium nitrate;
- 10 g of potassium sulfate.
Under each plant make 1 l of fertilizer. This means that there are enough buckets to feed 10 broccoli plants.
4. The fourth dressing spend after the first harvestto stimulate the formation of lateral heads. In this case, the composition of the mineral complex remains the same, but the proportions change. In 10 liters of water is diluted:
- 30 g of potassium sulfate;
- 20 g of superphosphate;
- 10 g of ammonium nitrate.
The main trick when harvesting asparagus cabbage is to correctly determine the time when the inflorescences are fully formed, but the buds did not have time to open. If you cut the inflorescence later, you can put an end to the harvest: the formation of lateral heads will stop. In fact, the more often you cut the inflorescences, the more yield you get.
The best time for harvesting broccoli is early morning or evening, when the plants are saturated with moisture and not exhausted by the scorching sun.
In this phase of broccoli inflorescence can be collected
Cut broccoli inflorescences are stored for only a few days, so it is advisable to use them immediately for food or to freeze them.
We hope this article has convinced you to go to a specialty store for a bag of other broccoli seeds. And, of course, do not forget to share the results on our forum!