Arbor can be built in different ways. But the most "spiritual" material remains a tree. And it is doubly pleasant to be in it when it was built by itself. Therefore, many people are interested in how to build a gazebo with their own hands.
To build a cozy gazebo on your site, it is not at all necessary to call for the help of construction professionals or to spend money on an already finished building. Armed with enthusiasm, a number of materials, tools, as well as our advice, you will certainly cope with the task.
Necessary tools and materials
The amount of consumables depends on the selected or created project. The size of the building is determined by the needs of the owners, as well as the area of the site itself.
For the construction of arbors you will need:
- wood (timber, board of different thickness, rake);
- fasteners (nails 50, 100, 200 mm or screws of a suitable size);
- screwdriver, drill;
- hacksaw, jigsaw;
- hammer, sledgehammer;
- spade, pick;
- plumb, tape measure, construction level;
- cement, sand, crushed stone, roofing material, bitumen (the quantity is selected individually, depending on what sizes of arbors are chosen for giving in each specific case).
How to start building a gazebo?
At the first stage of any construction, a place is selected and a project is developed.
Choose a place
Before starting work, carefully select a place. Even if the plot is very small area, it is worth considering everything. We should not forget that the size and shape of the future arbor will depend on the chosen place.
If you build a simple gazebo with your own hands as a place for rest and privacy, then it will be wrong to locate it near the entrance or fence that borders the street, or with a neighboring property. It is better to choose a nook in the depths of the site.
You can put a gazebo in the middle, so that from all sides open the review. Especially if around a lot of decorative gardening: flower beds, alpine slides, rockeries, water. It will be a great option for receiving guests in the warm season.
If the gazebo is planned to be used as a family dining room, then it is worth erecting it closer to the house. It will be convenient in the case when children spend a lot of time in it.
Come up with a gazebo project
On the Internet, there are various ready-made drawings for summer houses and cottages. Therefore, hiring a specialist is not always necessary. Dimensions can be adjusted independently, based on the possibilities, conditions, and the purpose of the future construction (guest, individual, family).
Speaking about the size of the arbor, usually imply its area or width across. The dimensions of the building should correspond to the area of the site and other structures on it, so that the overall look is harmonious. But you should not forget about convenience either. It will be correct to build calculations based on the norms of the area per person.
It has been established that for comfort one person needs 2 square meters of free space.
It should also take into account the area occupied by the table, if any, as well as chairs. By the way, it is more economical to use the space by installing benches along the walls instead of chairs.
Regarding the height inside, it is experimentally established that for a person’s physical and psychological comfort it should be at least 220 cm. The external height will depend entirely on the structure itself.
Thus, creating a sketch of an arbor, you need to take into account not only your wishes in appearance, but also convenience for further use. Fix the flaws and miscalculations after construction will be almost impossible.
Varieties of arbors
There are two main types of garden arbors:
1. Pavilion. The most common type. Characteristics: the presence of the roof. Maybe with several walls or without them.
2. Pergola. Relatively speaking, this is just a bench under a small canopy. The bench can be hung like a swing.
Garden arbor of the first type is built, as already mentioned, most often. There may be different kinds. The most classic option is a round or polygonal structure with a solid roof. The walls can be solid, lattice or half. It all depends on the person's imagination.
In addition to the size, type and general appearance of the arbor, the project must take into account the necessary materials and their quantity. There are two options. First: use ready-made boards and timber (can be used). Second: choose a natural material with minimal processing. This option is suitable for folk style. And will be considered separately.
Preparatory work in the construction of gazebos do it yourself
The number of preparatory works will depend on how the future gazebo will be built.
Step 1. Mark the territory with the help of pegs and rope.
Step 2. Level the ground, remove disturbing vegetation. It is better to remove the upper fertile soil layer. First, this land can be used for the device beds. And, secondly, so under the floor of the future gazebo there will be much less moisture. By the way, experts advise to raise the floor above ground level. Although sometimes the simplest arbors of wood can be without a specially arranged floor. That is, it acts as rammed soil or crushed rubble or expanded clay.
Step 3. Pour the foundation. An exception can be only in those cases when the basis will be dug up vertically wooden poles. Although, most often combine the pillars and the foundation. Of course, in this case the pillars must be properly prepared (about this below) and they are also recommended to be concreted. If the earth is clay, then the pillars are preferable, since the clay can either float from the water or freeze unevenly, from which the foundation will “play” and may burst. To strengthen its use of reinforcement.
The foundation is best poured around the perimeter of the entire structure, so that you can lay on it the logs, which later will be laid boardwalk floor, if it is provided.
The depth of the pits under the pillars or trenches under the strip foundation depends on the characteristics of the soil, the degree of freezing in winter and the depth of the groundwater. In any case, it is better to make it at least 50 cm thick. The height above the ground level is 5-10 cm. The foundation must be at least three days old before the work will be continued.
Wooden arbors can also be with a brazier inside. In this case, the brazier should be built of brick and must be equipped with a chimney. And in advance you need to provide a foundation and a barbecue.
You can make a monolithic strip foundation under the whole future gazebo. Its thickness must be at least 250 mm. In addition, it will need to be reinforced with a lattice of reinforcement. Under the foundation must be a two-layer cushion of sand and rubble.
The second option is not to fill the foundation, but to build the foundation columns. For example, from used bricks or blocks. Their number depends on the size and shape of the base of the arbor. For example, for a quadrangular structure with a size of 3 × 3 m, you will need to build 4 corner columns + one column in the middle of each side + one more in the very center. Total 9 pieces or 3 rows of three columns.
Step 4. Pour drainage or make a screed under the floor. As a drainage is usually used crushed stone. You can use for these purposes broken building materials (brick, slate, tile). With a good even screed flooring can be laid directly on it, paving as a waterproofing roofing material.
Step 5. Tree preparation. Construction of wooden arbors provides for their long-term use all year round. This means that the entire structure will be exposed to moisture, insects, fungi. Therefore, wood needs a good impregnation. The easiest and safest option for people that will protect wood from rotting is copper sulfate.
As for the bearing pillars and lag for the floor, it is desirable to additionally grind them, that is, soak them with melted bitumen (at the pillars that part that is in the ground).
Garden gazebo do it yourself. Building
1. Once have been installed vertical pillars (embedded in the foundation or dug into the ground), it is necessary to tie them together at the bottom to give the structure rigidity. The cross section of the pillars must be at least 80 × 80 mm. For ligation, you can use the bar 100 × 100 mm. It is cut to size and placed in the intervals between adjacent carrier pillars.
In those places where the tree is in contact with the foundation or retaining columns of brick, it is necessary to enclose the roofing material for waterproofing. The same laid timber will be used as a log for flooring.
Further, in order to fasten among themselves the individual elements of the structure obtained, temporary struts are used - equal lengths of planks attached simultaneously to poles and horizontal bars. Additionally, you can use metal mounting angles. At this stage of work it is recommended to use wood screws. In any case, when installing the pillars, a plumb or building level should be used to achieve a strictly vertical position.
2. When a wooden gazebo is being built with its own hands, at the second stage, many craftsmen make roof frame. This is a rational grain. First, the upper ends of the bearing pillars are tied together, which gives the structure even more rigidity. And, secondly, the presence of the roof will allow not to interrupt work if it rains.
So, first you need to tie up the bearing pillars at the top. For this purpose, either a 80 × 80 timber or an inch cut board is used. Both that, and another keeps within on columns from above and is attached by nails or self-tapping screws. You can not lay the board on top, and mount on the side surface of the pillars from the inside or outside of the future gazebo.
Some masters bandage the pillars between themselves not around the perimeter, but crosswise - act as you prefer.
Next, fasten the rafters. They should be interconnected at the top point, and their lower ends should rest on the bearing pillars. That is, it turns out the frame for the roof. It can be assembled on the ground and then installed. But you can collect immediately on the gazebo.
For rafters usually use a cut inch board. It is installed not flat, but on the edge. For greater rigidity, if necessary, the rafters can be fastened together by horizontal bars of 50 × 50 mm.
Depending on how the project was the arbor with his own hands, the roof can be double-sided, in the form of a tent. The number of rafters is usually equal to the number of bearing pillars. When the device gable roof rafters are attached at the top of the ridge beam.
3. Roof. When the frame is ready, you can begin to sheathe it. That is, proceed to roofing work. If you ultimately plan to lay slate, then you can use unedged board for plating. If in plans to leave a roof wooden, then the board will need an edged. Half an inch thick is enough. For fasteners, nails of the appropriate length or wood screws are used. After these works, the diagonal bandaging of the carrier pillars at the bottom can be removed.
4. Now you can proceed to floor device. It is laid with edged boards not less than an inch thick. It is better if it is, for example, 40 mm. The optimal cross section for the floor is 100 × 100 mm. Lags are stacked at a distance of no more than 50 cm from each other. Boards are attached to the logs with screws on the tree. You can use nails, but in this case it will be more difficult to replace a separate board later if the need arises.
The logs themselves are attached to the cross bars with an inlay (for this, you will have to cut through the half bar). Additionally, they are fastened together with nails or screws. Since dampness will have a greater effect on the wood in this part, lags can be additionally treated with bitumen.
In addition, logs can be placed in the internal space between the bars, based on the foundation, or on the retaining posts, built during the preparatory stage. In this case, you need to use roofing material as a waterproofing.
5. Walling. Depending on the project of an arbor to give your own hands, the walls will be solid along the entire height, up to half or a third, or entirely lattice. That is, the whole structure at this stage is sheathed with a batten or board, with decorative elements.
6. Painting or varnishing.
Arbor do-it-yourself in folk style
To implement such a project will need natural material. For bearing pillars, you will need to use tree trunks sawn to size. Rafters are made of poles of suitable length, which are interconnected at the highest point. Between them at equal distance imposed cross, the role of which perform branches of suitable thickness. Before you make an arbor of wood in the folk style, all parts must be cleaned of bark and soaked with an antiseptic solution (copper sulfate).
For walls, you will need to install short poles (drive in or dig into the ground) between the supporting pillars. The walls themselves will consist of interlaced horizontal bars. The roof can be covered with dry reeds or straw. Floor boards are not laid. You can leave the tamped soil, which is laid on a layer of reed, straw or hay.
Anyone who is interested in how to make a wooden gazebo with their own hands, does not have much work to do and will not need special skills. You can go two ways and build a gazebo either using ready-made wood (boards, cant), or using natural material with minimal processing.