If you did not have time to plant the apple trees in the spring, the cuttings did not take root, or you just want to try something new in gardening, pay attention to such a procedure as the summer grafting of fruit trees.
If you are going to plant an apple tree in summer, remember that this method is only suitable for very young trees, seedlings and root shoots that you want to cultivate. Moreover, the thickness of the grafted branch must be no more than 0.8-1.5 cm, and the branch itself should be located close to the trunk of the tree.
The benefits of summer grafting apple
In comparison with the spring vaccination, summer has many advantages:
- the process of cultivation of the fruit tree is reduced by the calendar year;
- there is no need to harvest cuttings in advance and store them all winter;
- you will know exactly how the stocks survived the winter, whether they got accustomed and prepared for vaccination;
- if the spring vaccine has not taken root, the summer vaccine will not allow you to lose the year;
- summer vaccinations grow well with the stock and do not need time-consuming care;
- you use all the cuttings-stocks, which is especially important if they are in short supply;
- there is no large influx at the site of the summer vaccination, so it is almost imperceptible;
- by the fall it will be clear whether the vaccination has taken root or not.
Thus, planting a young apple in the summer is profitable, quickly and simply.
How to understand that the tree is ready for grafting?
Summer vaccination is performed when young shoots have stopped growing. At this point, the axillary buds on them have already matured and can serve as a material for vaccination.
In most parts of Russia, this period continues. from late July to mid-August. However, depending on the temperature, precipitation and even tree varieties, these periods can vary considerably. Therefore, before vaccination, you need to make sure that the tree is ready for this procedure.
Summer grafting of an apple tree saves time for tree cultivation
Determine the readiness of the apple can be the state of the buds and the fit of the bark. In the first case, pay attention to apical bud of the stalk: it must be fully formed.
A sign of apple readiness for vaccination can also serve reduction of the distance between the nodes on the apical part of the annual cutting.
You can also focus on degree of adherence of the cortex. To estimate this parameter, cut the bark on one of the branches to be grafted and try to separate it from the wood. If the bark moves away easily, the tree is ready for grafting.
First, plant early varieties of apple, then - later.
We select cuttings for the summer vaccination
In order to select the appropriate cutting, you need to be able to distinguish growth buds from flowering. In most cases, growth buds predominate at the tops of shoots, in the middle - both growth and flowering buds, and at the bottom part the number of growth buds increases again.
Also plays a role the location of the shoots in the tree crown. The central shoots that are inside the crown, bear on themselves more flower buds, while the side - growth.
It is easy to distinguish the kidneys by their appearance: growth buds longer and flattened as well flowery - rounded and large in size.
It is necessary to cut the cuttings from those parts of the branch on which growth buds predominate. Shoots need to take already lignified, with healthy leaves, smooth bark without flaws. The length of the shoot must be at least 30 cm, the diameter at the cut point - 5-6 mm.
Summer vaccination cuttings should be harvested in the early morning.
Preferably harvest cuttings on the day of vaccination. from 4 to 10 am. If you are going to use them within 2-3 hours, then you should not lower the cut shoots into the water (especially chlorinated).
Harvested shoots are transferred to the shade, the top and leaves are removed, leaving petioles about 1 cm long, then the stipules are removed. After this, the shoots are wrapped in a damp cloth and delivered to the site of vaccination.
Ideally, the summer vaccination is best done on an overcast, but not rainy day, morning or evening, when it is not so hot outside.
Summer apple budding - step by step instructions
There are many ways to graft fruit trees. But not all are suitable for summer grafting of apple trees.
During the warmer months, trees can be grafted only by the method of budding (there are two types of budding: in the T-shaped incision and priklad). The choice of budding method depends on how well the bark is separated from the wood.
Grafting an apple tree into a T-shaped incision
This method is suitable for grafting plants in which the bark leaves easily. Knife for carrying out budding should be sharp, with a special "bone" to create a T-shaped incision.
Budding the apple tree in a T-shaped incision - the most common method of summer vaccination
- Stand next to the stock, tilt it and make a cross-section on it to the wood itself. It should be made at a small angle to the vertical axis of the stock, in order to further facilitate the insertion of the shield. Depending on the thickness of the branch or trunk of the tree, the length of the cross-section should be from 2 to 3.5 cm.
- Take out the trimming knife and make a longitudinal cut perpendicular to the transverse one with the rounded part of the blade. As a result, you should get the letter "T". To prevent the knife from sliding, place the index finger of your right hand just below the blade. He should move along the stock as a stop. Place the blade of the knife perpendicular to the bark of the tree. The length of the longitudinal incision should be 1-3 cm. The easier the bark separates, the shorter the incision can be.
- When the blade of the knife reaches the intersection of the longitudinal and transverse cuts, do not remove it, but turn it alternately to the right and left, lifting the corners of the bark.
- Take the graft graft in your left hand tip to yourself and select the appropriate kidney for vaccination.
- Transversely cut the bark on the handle at the top of the future shield, departing 1-1.5 cm from the top of the bud.
- Make a second transverse incision 1.5 cm below the base of the kidney, cutting through the bark and a small layer of wood.
- Place the blade of the knife at a distance of 1.5-2 cm from the base of the kidney, sliding it towards yourself and to the right slightly deepen the blade and gently slide it under the bark, seizing a thin layer of wood.
- As soon as the blade reaches the base of the kidney, you need to raise the knife edge, thereby deepening the blade.
- Cut the vascular fiber that feeds the kidney and lower the knife edge again.
- Cut off the top of the shield so that the kidney is located in the middle.
- Take the flap by the stem with your left hand and insert it into the T-shaped incision of the bark of the stock, slightly bending the stock in the opposite direction of the cut.
- The flap should be inserted so that the kidney is in the middle of the longitudinal incision.
- Swipe the longitudinal incision with the index fingers of both hands so that the crust fits snugly against the shield.
- Tie the vaccination site with plastic wrap immediately after the procedure. The binding is carried out from the lower end of the longitudinal section and to the upper edge of the transverse section. The place of vaccination "bandage" tight, without gaps, but at the same time leave the kidney and petiole open. When tying, make sure that the shield does not move.
- If some parts of the graft cut are left uncovered, they are smeared with garden pitch.
Inoculation of apple trees
This method is suitable for branches and trees whose bark is difficult to separate.
Budding in the butt requires the ideal alignment of the cambial layers of the scion and rootstock
- On the rootstock in the inoculation area, trim a strip of bark from top to bottom with a thin layer of wood 2.5–3 cm long and 0.4–0.7 cm wide.
- Then cut about 2/3 of this strip, and slightly remove the remaining piece of bark to the side.
- At the place of attachment of the strip of bark to the trunk, place the knife at an angle of 30 degrees and make an incision 4-5 mm deep. As a result, you should have a wedge-shaped incision, where you later insert the lower end of the shield with the kidney.
- Cut off the flap with the cutting using the method described in the section “Grafting an apple tree into a T-shaped cut”.
- Insert the shield under the remaining piece of bark at the incision and align it with the stock so that their cambial layers touch each other from all sides.
- Immediately place the vaccination site with cling film or other material so that the shield remains in place and the cambial layers continue to touch. Sliced open slices with garden pitch.
Care for an apple tree after vaccination
Regardless of the budding method, the winding is removed after 2-3 weeks. By this moment, it becomes clear whether the vaccination has taken root or not. This can be determined by the state of the stem: if it dried up and fell off, it means that the procedure was completed successfully. Otherwise, the vaccine did not catch on; it will be possible to repeat the manipulation next spring. Do not forget to smear the damaged bark with a garden pitch.
It is important to loosen the dressing at the vaccination site in a timely manner so as not to damage the tree.
As you can see, to spend the summer inoculation of an apple tree is a snap. Be sure to try this method in your garden.