Bordeaux liquid - the most popular fungicide that summer residents use to protect plants for many years. But in order for the treatments to benefit, this drug must be properly prepared.
Bordeaux liquid is a mixture of copper sulfate solution (copper sulfate in the form of bright blue powder) and hydrated lime (milk of lime). A solution of Bordeaux liquids can be safely called a universal preparation that helps in the fight against fungal and bacterial diseases of various plant species.
In addition, copper in the Bordeaux blend is a trace element necessary for the proper development of plants. Copper deficiency is observed on peat and acid sandy soils. Crops grown under adverse conditions are stunted, their leaves suffer from chlorosis. In this case, treatment Bordeaux liquid not only protects plants from diseases, but also provides them with additional food.
Bordeaux liquid is a mixture of lime and copper sulfate
Bordeaux mixture production
Today, there are packages with copper sulfate in the right proportions. Packages weighing 300 g are used to prepare a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquor, and 100 g are used for a 1% concentration.
How to make 3% Bordeaux liquid
To prepare 3% Bordeaux liquid, dissolve 300 g of copper sulphate in 1-2 liters of hot water. To do this, use glass, enameled or plastic containers, in any case, not metal. In another container in 2-3 liters of hot water, dilute 300-400 g of lime. Then bring each solution to a volume of 5 liters by adding cold water. Strain the lime milk through a thick gauze or nylon cloth. Fine stream, often stirring, pour into it the solution of copper sulfate. The mixture should be sky blue.
Then with the help of litmus paper (usually it is attached to the package of copper sulfate), check the pH of the liquid, the reaction should be neutral or slightly alkaline. This will indicate staining paper in blue. If it turns red, add some lime milk to the solution and repeat the check.
Bordeaux liquid with a high content of copper sulfate can burn the plants, so it is diluted (neutralized) with lime milk
If there was no litmus test, you can do it another way. Dip a nail or iron wire into the mixture for 1.5-2 minutes. If they turn red, add a little more lime to the liquid. Do this until the metal ceases to change color under the action of copper.
How to make 1% Bordeaux liquid
To prepare 1% Bordeaux mixture, take 100 g of copper sulphate and 100-150 g of lime, dissolve both substances in 1 liter of hot water (in separate containers). As in the previous case, bring each solution to 5 liters, then strain the milk of lime and add copper sulfate to it.
Bordeaux liquid is poorly stored (no longer than a day), so use it immediately after preparation. In addition, please note: the finished mixture can not be diluted with water.
Rules for the treatment of plants Bordeaux liquid
Bordeaux mixture is used to fight against fungal diseases of apple and pear (scab, fruit rot, leaf spot, rust), cherries, plums, cherry plum (gray rot, monilial burn, coccomycosis, astrosis), as well as common diseases of berry bushes, grapes and roses (anthracnose, septoria, mildew, stem cancer, infectious burn).
In the spring (during the swelling of the kidneys) and late autumn (usually in November) a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid is used. It helps to destroy fungi and bacteria before and at the very end of the growing season. This procedure is called the eradicating spraying. In the rest of the time (at the end of spring, in summer and at the beginning of autumn), 1% Bordeaux liquid is used: it is abundantly sprayed with leaves of plants.
Stone fruits (plum, cherry plum, cherry, cherry, apricot) are very sensitive to treatments with copper-containing preparations, so they are sprayed only in early spring and late autumn.
Plants are treated exclusively in dry and non-hot weather, because at high humidity the preparation can cause leaf burn.
When processing, it is necessary to moisten the plant abundantly and evenly so that the solution runs down the branches and trunk, penetrating into all the cracks in the bark, because there are a large number of pathogenic microorganisms accumulated there. Properly performed treatment protects trees and shrubs from diseases and pests throughout the month.
Treating stone trees
Cherries, cherries, plums, apricots, peaches are sprayed once before bud break with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture. Then, during the growing season, 2-3 treatments with 1% (even with 0.75%) solution are performed. On a young tree spend 2 liters. drug, and per adult - about 10 liters.
Processing pears, apple, quince
In early spring, 1-2 treatments are carried out with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid, and during the growing season with a 1% solution - at the rate of about 10 liters of the drug for an adult tree and about 2 liters - for a young plant. During the season, spend no more than 6 treatments Bordeaux mixture. For strong and healthy trees, blue spraying is done every 3 years.
In the same way Bordeaux liquid treated with ornamental trees and shrubs. Since the crop is not harvested from them, in the fall they are re-sprayed with a 3% solution.
Berry Shrub Processing
Gooseberries, raspberries, currants and strawberries are also sprayed in early spring with a 3% solution. This helps protect the shrubs from leaf spotting. During the growing season, 1% Bordeaux liquid is used, and no more than three sprays are performed during the season. About 1.5 liters of the prepared mixture are consumed per 10 square meters of landings.
In spring, grapevines are sprayed with 3% Bordeaux liquid (at the rate of 1.5 liters per 10 square meters of planting), and during the growing season they use more benign preparations without copper content, since copper sulfate can inhibit the growth of young shoots and reduce the quality of grapes .
To protect against late blight tomatoes growing in greenhouses and open ground, during the growing season, apply a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid at the rate of 1.5-2 liters per 10 square meters of plantings. Such spraying spend 4 times per season.
Cucumbers are treated with a 1% solution also at the rate of 1.5-2 liters per 10 square meters, but not more than three times per season. And for spraying watermelons and melons on a melon field with an area of 10 square meters, up to 1 l of Bordeaux liquor solution of the same concentration is used.
Potatoes are treated during the growing season with a 1% solution, consuming 1 l per 10 square meters of planting. Spraying is repeated quite often, but not more than 14 times for the entire season.
Beets of all kinds are protected from chill, mildew and rust with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture. During the growing season, spend no more than three treatments, spending 1 l per 10 sq. M.
Now you know how to prepare Bordeaux liquid to spray the garden against diseases and pests. Follow the rules for applying this fungicide - and your green pets will be healthy.