If you have never planted trees before, then parasitic grafting is the way to start. After all, when it is done, it is almost impossible to harm a plant or ruin it.
One of the most benign ways of grafting trees (pears, apples, cherries, cherries, etc.) is called parasitic, because the graft on which the grafting is made is cut above the place of accretion only after the stalk has taken root on it.
Experienced gardeners resort to parasitic inoculation in cases where the diameter of the rootstock is significantly (5-10 times) thicker than a scion. Or when you want
keep the main branch fruiting for 2-3 years after the procedure.
How to choose a scion for parasitic vaccinations?
Graftwood determines the varietal characteristics of the tree That is why cuttings from a healthy, giving a rich crop of plants are suitable for parasitic inoculation. Best of all, shoots from 5–6 mm to 3 cm thick and about 30–40 cm long are suitable for this purpose.
The stalk should be smooth, healthy, with 3-4 well-formed buds, without brown spots on the cut.
Cuttings for parasitic vaccination should be harvested in the fall, after falling leaves, but before the onset of frost.
On a branch that will become a graft, count 2-3 buds and make an oblique cut without a tongue with a sharp inoculative knife, which then necessarily treat with a garden cook. (The length of the cut should be 2-3 times the diameter of the cutting.)
Wipe all inoculum with a damp cloth, sort and bundle, attaching a label with the name of the variety to each. Store on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator or in the basement.
As a stock when conducting a parasitic inoculation, you can use a wild bird or a sturdy domesticated tree that is older than 3 years.
How to perform a parasitic inoculation of the fruit tree
Parasitic inoculation is carried out in the period of active sap flow until the kidneys swell (in the middle lane this is the end of April - the first half of May).
To determine the most suitable time for grafting, cut one of the branches of the tree on which the cuttings will be grafted, and try to separate the bark. If this is not difficult, you can proceed with the operation.
However, graft and rootstock need to prepare in advance. In particular, about 2 weeks before grafting, the soil around the tree on which you will plant a cutting, weed, loosen, water if necessary.
If cuttings for vaccination were harvested in the fall, remove them from the shelter no earlier than one day before vaccination, wipe them with a clean, damp cloth and soak in water.
It is possible to prepare a scion for parasitic vaccination in the spring, before the buds start to blossom.
Prepare the tools immediately before grafting. Sharpen and disinfect garden, grading and inoculation knives, saw, ax, blade and other tools that will be used during the procedure.
Then on the stock in the place of future vaccination with a saw or ax make a shallow (3-5 mm) cut, forming a horizontal protrusion.
Parasitic inoculation: 1 — a graft with an oblique cut, 2 — a stock with a protrusion and a longitudinal incision, 3 — fitted vaccination, 4 — tying
Under the ledge with a knife for budding, longitudinally cut the bark, separate it from the wood and gently bend its edges to the sides. Insert the prepared cutting with an oblique cut down into this section as far as it will go. Then gently press the raised bark with your fingers and wrap the branch from the bottom up (from the notch end and to the edge of the ledge) with a tape of plastic film in 2 layers. Fix the end of the tape with a garden cook. They also cover the site of vaccination.
How to care for the vaccination site
The vaccination site must be properly looked after, otherwise all efforts will go down the drain.
To prevent the cutting from dying due to lack of moisture, 50 cm below the vaccination site, attach a pole to the rootstock or hammer a stake next to it. After that, in place of vaccinations and a pole (count), put on a clean bag without a bottom. Make a small hole in the bag and pass the cutting into it. Then secure the package with electrical tape 5 cm below the place of accretion and fill it with a glass of a wet mixture of sawdust and ash (20: 1). Attach the top of the bag to the pole with tape 5 cm above the grafting site.
To protect the cutting from strong gusts of wind and the invasion of birds Cover it with a paper or holed plastic bag.
To sprout successfully wintered, in the run-up to the first frost, wrap it with sacking.
About once every 2-3 weeks, loosen the strapping on the grafted graft and timely trim the wild growth that consumes the nutrients vital for the graft.
For the stock, no special care is required, all work (weeding, feeding) can be safely carried out as before. However, in the heat, it is still better to increase the watering, and with a strong thickening of the trunk to make a furrow (make a sharp blade shallow cuts from the influx to the ground).
When to wait for results
After about 2 weeks (in rare cases - 23-25 days) after a parasitic vaccination, you will be able to assess whether it was a success or not. If the procedure is successful, the scion kidneys will begin to swell, and callus will form at the site of accretion.
Callus, or callus (from the Latin. Callus - thick skin, callus) - the influx of plants in places of damage and promotes their healing.
The eyes of the rootstock, located below the site of the operation, will also develop.
When the graft finally takes root, gently saw off the part of the stock that is above the grafting site.
If for some reason the graft did not succeed (the cutting began to dry, the buds did not bloom on it), carefully remove the binding material and remove the graft, and treat the wound with garden baryl so that it heals faster. After a year you can try again to plant this tree, but in a different place.