The owners of the dacha plots have to solve the problem of disposal of used and polluted water on the farm, as well as the disposal of rainwater. To do this, there are drainage systems, characterized by the complexity of the device and cost.
To prevent excessive soil moisture on the site, it is necessary to install a drainage system. We propose to understand the advantages and disadvantages of various drainage systems for the garden.
General concepts of wastewater
Drainage in the country is a whole complex of various structures that are designed to divert water from residential and commercial buildings. For proper design and sewage systems, you need to know which drainage systems exist, what they are intended for and how they differ from each other.
Principles of classification of wastewater systems
All systems can be divided into three large types:
- Industrial sewage (in this case will not be considered),
- Storm sewage,
The latter is divided into two types: centralized and autonomous. Centralized sewers arrange in settlements. But for private households used autonomous drainage system.
In addition, sewage is divided into internal and external. Internal includes all equipment for water disposal, which is mounted indoors: plumbing, piping, filters. The external system consists of pipes, sewage treatment plants, pumping stations (if any) mounted on the street.
External drainage (sewage) is different in its structure.
- General (combined) sewage. All types of wastewater (domestic, storm) are removed together. The advantage of this device is that it simplifies maintenance and reduces the cost of building a drainage system.
- Separate sewage. Domestic wastewater is removed separately from stormwater.
- Partial sewage. Water is diverted along different paths, but as a result, they are connected in one collector.
For giving, the semi-partition system is most often used. In this case, all domestic wastewater is removed through pipes, and the storm water for the most part flows into trays for drainage. Less common are separate systems. They are arranged in order to collect stormwater in separate containers and then use it either for domestic needs or for irrigation.
Drainage device at the dacha
Internal drainage is more or less simple. It consists, as already mentioned, of plumbing, pipes and filters. With the external system, the situation is somewhat more complicated, since it is necessary to ensure the removal of storm water as well as groundwater. At the same time they are removed from different levels and from different parts of the site. Therefore, the whole external drainage system can be divided into three parts.
The name itself suggests that it is designed to remove stormwater from the roof of a building. At the same time, depending on the type of roof (flat or inclined), the system will be internal or external.
In any case, the stormwater drainage system will consist of the following elements: transverse gutters for collecting rainwater, vertical drainpipes, and also funnels that connect the elements together.
For the manufacture of drainage pipes chutes most often used galvanized iron. This material is used due to its low weight, long service life, low cost and practicality.
The roof drainage system is designed for collecting and transporting storm and melt water flowing from the roof into storage tanks. For example, in simple buckets.
Saving on the installation of this system does not bring any benefit, since due to its absence, there is a gradual destruction of the blind area or the steps of the porch under the action of water falling from the roof. In addition, the walls at the bottom of the house are splashed.
This part of the system is, relatively speaking, on the ground and passes around the perimeter of buildings. Serves for the discharge of rain and melt waters. Where such drainage is not installed, there is a high probability of softening and displacement of the soil, foundation, cracking of the screed, asphalt or destruction of the paving stones in a few years.
Such drainage consists of gutters, which are preferably covered with special gratings (often included). This is done not only in aesthetic, but also for practical purposes (protection from large debris, for example, fallen leaves). From here, sewage can get into the sewage system with sewage from the premises, as well as be displayed in a separate collection or, for example, in the garden. In addition, surface drainage systems may include traps for sand and small stones.
It is used in cases when on the site, for various reasons, after rainfall or melting snow puddles remain that do not disappear within two days. To avoid problems that may arise as a result of this situation, many ditches are dug around the entire perimeter of the site (drainage pipes are laid in them) and drainage wells are arranged (storm and drainage water is collected in them).
Another important part of the drainage at the dacha is discharge point - the end point where the drains will fall. It is located in the lower part of the site at a distance of at least 50 m from the well or well.
Most often as a collection of wastewater acts cesspit. Its size and shape can be arbitrary, but in any case the walls are reinforced with bricks or special concrete rings. Here is the sedimentation of sediments, solid precipitation, and partial absorption of water by the earth.
The pit is used in cases when there is no common (central) drainage and sewage system for the entire street or holiday village. Benefits such a system are the simplicity and relative cheapness of its device.
Among the main deficiencies can be called:
- the need for periodic pumping of the contents (this entails the cost of calling an aspender machine);
- penetration into the soil and groundwater of substances that may harm the environment.
The last drawback can be eliminated if a hermetically closing septic tank is used instead of brick and concrete. It is a plastic or stainless steel tank (which is rare today). In this case, special preparations can be used in the septic tank, with the help of which water will be purified. As a result, it can be used in household needs. For example, for watering.
Attempts to combine surface drainage with the underground drainage system as a whole will not lead to anything good. During heavy and multi-day rains, water will rise to the top, which is fraught with flooding of the foundation.
Of course, at the stage when designing the drainage system is underway, maximum attention should be paid to exactly where the pit or septic tank will be located. After all, sooner or later access will be required for pumping using a sewage truck.
A more modern version of a septic tank or pit are local treatment facilities. These are quite complex devices that look like a sealed tank from the outside. Such facilities are designed for deep biological treatment of all wastewater.
For villas and private houses, they are produced in series. Their productivity (depending on the model) varies from 1 to 20 cubic meters per day. The use of such structures allows you to arrange on the site completely autonomous drainage. The disadvantage of this system is the high cost of its installation and further maintenance, compared with traditional methods.
Designing drainage in the country - what you need to know
Design is an important stage in any construction. In the case of wastewater, it will help not only to calculate the cost of all work and materials, but also to avoid many troubles. Including, with inspection bodies and with environmental services.
Follow the rules for the use of drainage systems. For each country, they have their own, but there are many similar points. For example, it is forbidden to dump drains directly into a river or reservoir that are nearby. Even if already treated waters are dumped, but the reservoir is used for fish farming, coordination with the owners is necessary.
It is important to remember that there are sanitary standards that regulate the distance from the drain holes to the dwellings and water supply systems (wells). In the first case, the distance should be at least 10 m, and in the second - at least 30 m, but if drinking water, then at least 50 m.
In addition, if the discharge goes to the central sewer, you will have to pay for it. Payment is calculated either by the meter, or, so to speak, by the average volume, which in this case equals to the volume of water consumed.
When making a plan, consider the relief of the site. This will help to choose the right materials and calculate their number. It is advisable to plan the slope of the entire system, so you do not have to install pumps, and the drains will flow by gravity. Especially bias is useful when there is a need to arrange drainage drainage.
There are norms of slope for each running meter of pipe. They depend on its diameter:
- pipe diameter of 50 mm - a minimum slope of 30 mm,
- 110 mm pipe diameter - minimum slope of 20 mm
- pipe diameter 160 mm - minimum slope 8 mm,
- 200 mm pipe diameter - minimum slope of 7 mm.
The total angle of incline of the pipeline is calculated as follows: it is necessary to multiply the length of the pipeline (in meters) by the slope recommended by the standard or GOST. For example, for 10 meters of a pipe with a diameter of 110 mm the slope will be 10 m * 0.02 m = 0.2 m.
Do not skimp on pipes by reducing their diameter. As a rule, a plastic pipe with a diameter of 50-100 mm is used for drains, which is a generally accepted standard. And standards exist both for the external sewerage, and for the internal. This applies not only to pipe diameters, but also to the degree of slope of the pipeline or its individual sections. It is also undesirable to make strong bends, which can become places of accumulation of blockages.
Consider the climatic features of your region when mapping a drainage system. The depth of the pipeline depends on them. So, if the winters in your area are not too cold, it is possible to lay pipes without insulation to a depth of 1 m. In areas with severe frosts, it is recommended to dig in at least 180 cm from the surface.
What kind of drainage device to give to choose?
To answer this question, you need to do two basic things:
- analyze the features of your site: the landscape, the features and the number of buildings, the possibility of sewage disposal beyond its limits (central sewage, water reservoir, services of vacuum cleaners), as well as the approximate volumes of wastewater;
- analyze their own financial capabilities.
For example, if the plot has a small area and a minimum of buildingsit is better to make the installation of the water disposal system all-round. In this case, communications will not take up much space, will be easier to maintain and will not require large capital investments.
If the site is quite large, it has several buildings, it makes sense to do a separate system. And in regions with high rainfall, rainwater drainage systems may be part of the irrigation system for greenhouses or summer gardens. In addition, in this area, you can use a drain hole of large volume, in which the drains will be defended and partially absorbed into the ground. For additional cleaning it is worth using aerobic preparations, as there is enough air in the pit for their work. Remember, without additional cleaning, it is forbidden to dump water into the ground.
If you add up the costs of construction and maintenance, the cheapest and environmentally friendly option will end up with a septic tank. The cesspool, although cheap at construction, requires frequent pumping. That is, the costs increase due to payment of services of vacuum trucks. Autonomous sewage system is the most durable, but at the same time, the most expensive. In addition, it requires sufficient space on the site to comply with sanitary standards.
Additional tips for those who are going to build drainage
- If you are thinking about how to do drainage with minimal cost, then pay attention to the materials. So, in the drain hole instead of a plastic tank, concrete rings or brickwork you can put old car tires, setting them one on another.
- When a plastic barrel dug into the ground is used to collect the waste, it is necessary to lay a concrete slab on top of it. This will prevent the barrel from being pushed out of the ground in winter.
- In order to save, you can arrange surface drainage using sawn along old asbestos, cast iron or plastic pipes.
- Do not forget: if during the laying of sewer pipes it is not possible to avoid turns, the angle in these places should not exceed 45 degrees. Otherwise, the likelihood of blockages increases.
We hope our article has helped you decide on which drainage system to choose for your dacha. Take advice on installation and get to work!