Modern varieties of plums can not be called unpretentious. They have certain requirements for planting, farming, fertilizers, and without these conditions, the trees can not be fruit-bearing, if not completely dead.
We have repeatedly told in detail about the various stages of plum care and operations that need to be done with it, but in this article we want to collect all the main points for those who are just going to start this beautiful tree in their garden.
1. When and where to plant the plum?
Plum saplings can be found on sale in almost all the warm seasons, however, despite the assurances of the sellers, the planting itself is best done in early spring. During the autumn planting, young plums often do not have time to take root and die, and the summer heat for these trees with a shallow root system is destructive.
In the extreme case, if it was in the fall you caught a sapling of a very attractive variety, try to plant it in such a way that there will be at least 2 months before the onset of cold, then the tree will have chances to live until spring.
Choose a lighted and sheltered place for the plum. It can develop in partial shade, but certainly not in a draft.
2. What kind of soil does plum love?
Plums grow best on fertile, loose soils with a neutral pH. It can be both loamy and sandy loam soil, the main thing is that it contains enough nutrients and they are applied regularly.
- Type of soil on the site - how to determine and improve the structureTo find out on your own what type of soil prevails on your plot, it is enough to carry out a few simple manipulations.
Plum does not tolerate stagnant moisture and waterlogging, so it will not grow on wetlands or lands where the distance to groundwater is less than 1.5 m.
3. How to choose a plum sapling?
The choice of planting material is always difficult, because the eyes just run away from the proposals of nurseries, shops and private farms. Whatever variety you prefer, remember that a sapling must meet several requirements:
- dwarf or semi-dwarf stock;
- lack of dry twigs and rotten roots;
- height more than 140 cm, diameter from 1.3 cm (for the first grade), height more than 110 cm, diameter more than 1.1 cm (for the second grade);
- branched shtamby height of not less than 50 cm, with a diameter of 1.4 cm, with a length of branches of 20 cm.
In addition, the seedling does not have signs of disease, traces of lichens, broken or cut branches.
4. How to plant a plum?
Young plums are planted in a permanent place in April, before buds bloom on the tree. For an annual tree (and the survival rate of plums is highest at precisely this age), you need to dig pits 60-70 cm deep. If you plant several plums next to them, then the distance between them should be at least 3 m, but from large adult trees they are desirable move aside by 7–10 meters so that the “kids” do not have to compete for light and food.
In order to ensure optimum conditions for the young plum tree, a layer of drainage is laid in the pit during planting, and then 250 g of superphosphate and a humus bucket are introduced, mixing it evenly with the main soil.
The tree is placed in a hole so that the root neck is 3-4 cm above ground level, level and fall asleep to half, then pour 3 buckets of water over it, so that the soil is tamped, and cover it to the top. Pristvolny plum circle is desirable to mulch with peat or humus.
If your seedling is already more than 1 m in height, tie it to the peg with a soft rope.
5. How to improve plum pollination?
Most of the varieties of plums currently on sale are self-infesting. This means that one tree on the plot will not be enough, and the harvest will not be tied. If there is a neighboring garden next to your territory, where other varieties of plums grow, blooming at the same time as yours, you can do without planting additional plants. If this is not the case, you will have to plant several copies at once, specifying at the time of purchase whether they have the same flowering time.
However, you can find self-fertile varieties of plums. True, even they will be better fruitful in the company of their own kind.
- Top 5 best self-propelled plum varieties (photos, descriptions, care tips)A selection of the best samoplodnyh plum varieties for cultivation in the Moscow region and the middle lane.
6. How to feed the plum?
The fertilizer pledged during planting will be enough for the first two years, but starting with the third, it will have to be fed. They do this not every year, but with an interval of 2-3 years, depending on the condition of the soil and the tree itself.
They do not fertilize the plum under the root, but in the hole or groove, dug at a distance of 60-80 cm from the tree trunk.
In the spring, after awakening the garden, 2 tablespoons of plum are added to the tree trunk circle. carbamide and potassium sulfate in 10 liters of water. After the plum has blossomed, spend a second feeding 3 tbsp. nitrophosca on 10 liters of water.
During the formation of the fruit, the plum can be poured over with a solution of chicken manure (1:20), and in the fall, spray the foliage with potassium sulfate and superphosphate 2 tbsp each. fertilizer for 10 liters of water.
7. How and how much water the plum?
The bulk of plum roots is located at a depth of 40 cm, that is, in that layer of soil that dries easily. From a lack of moisture, plum can discard flowers and ovaries, so you need to make sure that the soil in the breech circle is always moist, but not flooded.
On average, a young tree needs 5 buckets of water at a time, and during fruit formation, this volume increases by a third.
8. How to cut the plum?
Young plums grow very quickly, so they need annual pruning. It is held 2 times a year: forming in the spring and sanitary in the fall.
After pruning pruning, all cut areas are treated with garden pitch.
The first pruning pruning pruning is carried out one year after planting. Depending on the type of crown chosen, some of the branches are removed, all the tops and sometimes they cut off the center conductor.
- Proper pruning - tips for beginners (diagrams, photos, videos)We tell how to cut the plum in the spring, summer and autumn.
9. How to mulch plum?
Improving the wintering of plants and reduce the drying of the soil will help mulching pristolnogo circle plum. If, after planting, you covered it with peat, then after 2 years you can repeat the process, or surround the tree roots with bark (wood chips) within a radius of 1 m.
- What mulch to use for different crops?The yield and beauty of flowering plants often depend on what they are mulch.
The mulch from freshly cut grass or straw will also work, however, for the winter, the roots of the tree will have to be protected from rodents.
10. How to prepare the plum for the winter?
Usually, plums tolerate the winters, especially in the middle lane. But since their roots are located quite close to the surface, it is desirable to protect the garden from severe frosts, decay, and rodents.
To do this, in the late autumn, wrap the root collar of the plum with sphagnum moss, and as soon as the snow appears, pat it around the tree. If in the spring you for some reason did not mulch the trunk circle, in the fall you should certainly do it, but choose coarse materials that your mice will not like.
Do not forget to whitewash the plum after the onset of stable negative temperatures - young trees with delicate bark often suffer from frostbite. Wrapping the barrel with paper or covering material will help to cope with sunburn.
11. How to get rid of root sprout on plum?
Plum is famous for its abundance of root growth and its resistance. Of course, if you want to multiply the plum, then these offspring will be useful to you. But if the number of trees in the garden suits you completely, then it is necessary to get rid of the sprouts in time. It spends food and moisture, depriving the tree of force and reducing its fruiting.
A simple cut from the shoots will not get rid of - it will "rise" again and again. It is better to spray it with a 10% urea solution 2-3 times in sunny weather. Scions "burn", and new ones will cease to appear over time.
12. How to treat plums from pests?
Many insect pests prefer plums to other cultures and actively eat leaves, buds, flowers and fruits. They are found, as a rule, rather late, so one or even several harvests can be lost through ignorance.
- The most dangerous pests of plums and the fight against themDescription and photos of insects that can leave a gardener without a crop of plums.
As a preventive measure, the plum is treated in a leafless condition (in early spring and late autumn) with 3% Bordeaux liquid and 5% urea solution.
If pests have already appeared in your garden, plums should be sprayed with insecticides 3-4 times per season: before bud break, during the appearance of leaves, before flowering and before the fruit begins to ripen. Fufanon, Karate, Karbofos, Aktara, Mospilan, Calypso are well suited for these purposes.
13. How to plant plum?
If the young plum grown by you is not productive enough or gives tasteless fruit, you can change its varietal qualities with the help of vaccination. It is important to remember that the plum is grafted not on all cultures, but only on plum, cherry plum and apricot.
In addition, plum trees grow old very quickly, so it makes no sense to vaccinate a plant over 10 years old.
- Everything you need to know about plum graftingGraft plum you under. See for yourself!
Plum is grafted at any time of the year, but autumn is the most risky and often destroys the tree.
Care plum seems difficult only at first glance. After you master the basic techniques and rules, the trees in your garden will delight you with lush flowering and abundant harvest for many years.