When choosing a place for planting, one should take into account not only the type of soil and the requirements for lighting, but also some of the subtleties that make up the microclimate of the site. We tell what a microclimate is and how it affects plant growth.
To make the plants in your area require a minimum of care and not cause unnecessary trouble, it is important to choose the right place for their planting. It is necessary to take into account not only the type of soil and technology of planting and fertilizing, but also many small, but very important nuances.
Some of the “inhabitants” of your garden for good health require high humidity, others - a slight slope of the terrain, so that the water near the roots in no way stagnates, some wither without bright sunshine, and some are ready to “endure” a little shading, only there would be no drafts.
To organize all this in one area is quite realistic, if we take into account its microclimate. Why is the microclimate in different parts of the garden different? Most often it depends on the location of buildings on the site, their design and heating, as well as on the placement of existing landings.
1. The place of accumulation of foliage - for capricious perennials
The sure reference point for the selection of a place for planting heat-loving perennials that are demanding the composition of the soil is the place where the foliage accumulates.
First, the "fur coat" of leaf litter provides additional warming. Under a thick layer of foliage, the earth practically does not freeze through. This means that the roots and lower leaves of perennials well winter. So do not rush to remove fallen leaves in the fall.
Secondly, leaf humus enriches the soil with nutrients. This "likes" not only plants, but also earthworms, which actively dig the earth in these areas, improving its structure and increasing air and moisture permeability.
As a rule, the foliage accumulates on the leeward side of the outbuildings and fences, in open areas and in the trunks of shrubs.
2. West side along the buildings - for seedlings
While planting seedlings and cuttings in the garden for the winter, many gardeners make one dangerous mistake - they choose the warmest, sunny southern side for young plants, protected by a wall of buildings.
Why not do it? It would seem that the warmer, the lower the risk that planting material does not overwinter, is logical? But it turns out it is not. The fact is that in winter on the southern side of the site there are maximum temperature differences.
Thus, on sunny days, shoots can get a sunburn, and at night, when the temperature drops sharply, the plant risks freezing. In addition, because of the generous "portion" of the sun's rays, the snow in such areas melts quickly. This means that the land in the place of the prikop will not be sufficiently covered with a warm snow "fur coat". In addition, if you do not take care of good soil drainage, moisture can stagnate around the roots.
Thus, the minimum temperature difference and maximum protection against frost and wind can be achieved by dropping all the "sissies" along the western wall of the buildings.
If winters in your area are often snowless, it is advisable to mulch the plants for the winter.
In addition, in summer, the western walls of buildings warm up much more than the southern ones. Therefore, it is worthwhile to place heat-loving plants along the western walls of sheds, garages and houses. For example, naughty roses. So these beauties will feel good both in winter and in summer.
3. North side - for frost-resistant perennials
The areas with the lowest fluctuations in air temperature during the day are located along the northern side of the buildings. There, due to lack of sunlight, the snow practically does not melt, so the snow cover lasts longer.
In these places, you can plant frost-resistant rhizomatous flowers that winter well under a thick layer of snow.
4. The eastern side in the middle band is cunning
When choosing a place for planting in your garden, keep in mind that the eastern side of the site is dangerous due to sudden temperature changes. The rising sun heats the surface of the earth sharply in the morning, and in the evening it cools down again.
Moreover, due to insufficient warming in the second half of the day, at night on the eastern side of the site is much colder than on the western or southern.
But in warm regions, where the climate is milder, without sharp contrasts, and snow almost never falls in winter, planting on the eastern side of the site, on the contrary, will save delicate plants from morning frosts.
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5. Places near trees and roof drains - for moisture-loving plants.
If you are going to start a plant in the garden that requires constantly moist soil, plant it near the drains from the roofs of buildings and at the edge of wide crowns of trees and large shrubs.
It should be borne in mind that the land in tree trunks is usually dry, so it is worthwhile to place only drought-resistant shrubs and herbaceous plants. And the biggest concentration of moisture is where the branches of the tree end.
Raindrops, dew, melting snow dripping from the branches straight down. This is enough to keep the soil in these places constantly wet. The same applies to drains from the roof.
Considering that in these areas the soil is usually wetted even in the hot season, do not plant there plants that do not like frequent watering.
Of course, the situation with plants with a funnel-shaped crown and xerophyte plants (Cossack juniper, yucca, etc.) is just the opposite. From their crowns, moisture flows straight down and concentrates in pristvolny circles.
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6. North side of buildings - for evergreens
Evergreen trees and shrubs, as a rule, are unpretentious and do not cause difficulties in the care. But in the winter and early spring, they need protection from the bright sun.
To provide such plants with a reliable shadow, it is advisable to plant them near the northern wall of the house and the outbuildings.
In the strip of winter shade it is also advisable to place perennials that can come out of the winter “hibernation” too early and get a sunburn.
Given that in late spring and summer, the shadow is shortened by the fact that the sun is getting higher, the plants will get enough light when the threat of spring burns is over.
7. A hedge - protection from wind
Despite the fact that the wall or fence seems to be the most reliable protection from wind gusts that can freeze or break heat-loving plants, in reality this is not quite the case. Facing a barrier, a strong wind jet forms turbulence and can “jump over” it, with double force striking the plants planted behind the wall.
But the hedge (or pergola, entwined with a decorative vine) will partially pass through, but “pacify” the wind.
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If your site is located in a valley, most likely, drafts - your eternal problem. In this situation, a hedge can also be a solution. Trees with a wide crown or spreading shrubs should be planted on an elevated position, so that they restrain gusts of wind.
8. Attention - heated areas
Keep in mind that some places on the site may have a warmer microclimate due to the release of warm air. This may be the place where gas boiler exhausts occur or there is a basement ventilation outlet. There, the air temperature is usually several degrees higher. And on sites where the sewerage is laid, it is even warmer. Therefore, heat-loving plants will feel comfortable here.
In addition, heat is given off, warming the land around, heated houses (especially with large panoramic windows). However, if you have a modern ergonomic house with excellent thermal insulation, and the air does not “leak out” from it, you should not expect such an effect.
But planting plants too close to the walls of unheated outbuildings should not be. The land near them freezes more strongly, especially if the plants are located on the north side.
It is not easy for a beginner to take into account all these nuances of planting on the site - understanding what a microclimate is and how it affects plant growth comes with experience. If you plan to start landscaping in the next season, but are afraid not to take into account the important nuances, you can always contact the experts.