Many gardeners mistakenly believe that as soon as they plant a cherry seedling on their plot, then all the problems will end with them - walk only, but harvest annual and abundant crops, as the creators of the variety promise. However, this is not the case.
In addition to the compulsory care associated with pruning, loosening the soil and watering, there is also the need to protect trees from various diseases. Diseases can appear even in a model garden, because there are a lot of factors of their occurrence. These include negative weather conditions, soil conditions, injuries inflicted on trees during harvesting or sanitary pruning, and the influence of other trees in the garden, and other unpredictable phenomena.
If you let everything go of itself and simply do not treat the trees, depending on the severity of the disease, they can die in just a few months or 2-3 years later, and even become a serious threat to other fruit trees.
let's consider the most dangerous diseases of cherry and figure out how to deal with them.
This disease manifests itself most often in the spring in the form of rounded light brown spots on the leaves. After a couple of days, a crimson-red border forms around the spots, and they increase in diameter from 0.5 to 1-2 cm. After 8-10 days, through-holes appear at the spots. If a large portion of the leaf blade is affected by the congestion, the leaves wither and fall prematurely.
But this disease affects not only the leaves, it also harms the fruits. On them, the disease manifests itself in the form of small, often indented purple spots. These spots are initially no more than 1 mm in diameter and in just a few days they increase by a factor of 3–4 and become similar to warts of brown color with constantly released gum. In the areas of the fetus affected by the disease, the flesh ceases to develop and dries up.
Sometimes the disease progresses so much that it affects even shoots. On them it manifests itself in the form of elongated rounded cracking spots, in the center of which one can see a dark or light border and a gum that stands out.
Also klyasterosporioz can cause subsidence of buds, shedding of flowers, drying of fruits and shoots of cherry.
The cause of the disease is a fungus that overwinter in wounds and other injuries on the plant, including buds and shoots.
Preventing hormone disease
In order to eliminate the occurrence of this disease, it is necessary to regularly carry out preventive measures, remove dry and broken shoots, gloss over wounds with garden pitch. The treatment of wounds with a 1% solution of copper sulfate (100 g of the preparation per 10 liters of water) also helps. In early spring, before bud break, a solution of copper sulfate can be used to treat the entire tree.
If the disease is still developed, then you can fight it with Bordeaux fluid. To do this, prepare a 1% solution (100 g per 10 l of water) and treat the plants with them at the start of bud break or at the stage of bud formation. Re-processing can be carried out immediately after flowering, and the third - two weeks after the second. The final processing is carried out about a month before harvesting, and if the disease is spread very strongly, then one more treatment should be carried out immediately after the end of the leaf fall, using an already more concentrated, 3% bordeaux liquid.
This disease manifests itself on the leaves of the cherry in the form of small red dots. They are noticeable on both sides of the sheet, but on the lower side of the spot covered with pinkish bloom. In the process of development, coccomycosis causes the leaves to turn yellow, then turn brown, dry out and fall prematurely. The disease causes a fungus that overwinter on fallen leaves or cherry shoots.
The most active disease spreads in the spring, during the flowering of the cherry. Due to its volatile properties, fungal spores are spread over long distances. Heavily infected plants carry on themselves just a huge amount of spores, which can spread even by insects or domestic animals.
Prevention of coccomycosis
In order to prevent the need to constantly collect and burn off the site of fallen leaves and begin to rot the fruit, as well as sawed out and burn old dry and broken branches.
In the event of this disease, it is necessary to treat the plants before the beginning of flowering with iron sulfate (350 g per 10 liters of water).
After flowering, diseased plants can be treated with Chorus (2 g per 10 liters of water), the treatment must be repeated three weeks after flowering, and then one month after harvesting the entire cherry crop.
The disease manifests itself in the form of a change in the appearance of the shoots and branches: they become brown, similar to the burned ones.
A progressive disease leads to the appearance on the cortex of small growths of a grayish-green color. The surface of the fruits affected by moniliosis is also covered with small gray outgrowths, and the cherries rot.
The first disease occurs on the fruits and shoots with injuries. If monilioz is not treated, it will lead to the complete destruction of the branches.
This disease is caused by a fungus that winters on fallen and rotted fruits, as well as on damaged shoots and branches. The fungus spreads most actively in spring, in the period of flowering, with the help of spores, flying over long distances.
Prevention of Moniliasis
In order to prevent the occurrence of the disease, it is necessary to annually collect and burn rotting fruits and fallen leaves outside the territory of the site, cut dry branches. You need to fight with insect pests that can damage shoots and fruits.
When a disease occurs, trees can be treated with fungicides such as Nitrafen, or iron, copper sulphate or Bordeaux mixture (1%). The first treatment must be carried out before the start of flowering of the cherry; the second processing should be carried out after flowering. For it, you can use a 1% Bordeaux liquid, copper oxychloride, or phthalan-type fungicides.
In recent years, this disease has begun to infect cherries more and more often. It usually appears on the surface of the fruit during the period of its ripening in the form of light spots, on which in a few days dark hillocks with pink bloom are formed. If during this period the weather is dry, then the fruits affected by anthracnose dry up rather quickly. The development of the disease also contributes to windy and wet weather, then the spores of the fungus, which causes anthracnose, scatter over long distances and damage almost all the fruits on the tree.
It is possible to increase the resistance of cherry trees to the disease, if in the spring and autumn to whitewash the stems with lime; before blooming the leaves - carry out root dressing with a solution of potassium sulfate (3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water); timely handle all damages with garden bar, cut off dry branches.
Anthracnose is caused by a fungus that winters on damaged and fallen fruits. In this regard, all diseased fruits should be collected as soon as possible, taken out of the territory of the site and burned.
In the event of a disease, plants can be treated with a preparation such as Poliram (20 g per 10 liters of water). Processing needs to be carried out three times. The first must be carried out before flowering, the second - immediately after the end of flowering, and the third - 12-14 days after the second treatment.
The first signs that the disease slowly affects the plant, appear on the leaves of the cherry. From the top of their side you can see small bulges in the form of pads of brown-red or red-orange color. They look like rust stains on metal parts, hence the name.
The disease causes fungus, which often overwinter on the leaves. If left untreated, rust will cause the plant to drop most of its leaves ahead of schedule, and also to a sharp decrease in yield, both new and subsequent.
Cherry Rust Prevention
As a preventive measure, it is necessary to annually collect and burn all fallen leaves outside the site, and if the disease has appeared, then it is necessary to start treatment. To combat rust, you can use copper oxychloride or Bordeaux liquid. Chloride of copper plants are treated before flowering and immediately after its completion. The mixture is made on the basis of 80 g of powder per 10 liters of water. The consumption of the resulting solution is about 4 liters per tree over five years old and 2 liters per young plant. Re-processing is carried out after harvesting the fruit, using Bordeaux liquid (1% solution).
The disease appears on the fruits and leaves of the cherry in the form of brown-green velvety spots. "Velvet" is a fungus spore that, at the first gust of wind, spreads over long distances, infecting healthy plants.
The development of scab leads to the appearance of cracks in the fruit, which causes the loss of their commercial qualities, as well as wrinkling of still unripe fruits. With a large spread of the disease, more than 60% of the entire cherry crop may suffer.
The disease causes a fungus that overwinters on plant debris. The disease most actively develops and spreads during the flowering period, especially if the air humidity is high.
To prevent the disease, it is necessary first of all to take preventive measures - to remove all the fallen leaves and dig up the soil in the stalk zone, both in autumn and spring.
At the first signs of the disease you need to start treatments. For this purpose, fungicides like Nitrafen are used, the soil is treated with them before bud break.
Quite effective is the use of Bordeaux liquid (1%) at the very beginning of bud break. Re-spraying is carried out with Bordeaux liquid of the same concentration two weeks after the first treatment. The third treatment can be carried out immediately after harvesting the entire crop of cherries. In some years, with a strong defeat of scab trees, it is necessary to carry out a fourth treatment. It is carried out after 12-16 days after the third.
In conclusion, I would like to recommend gardeners to visit their sites more often, inspect the leaves, fruits, shoots and, if they detect the first signs of the disease, start treating the trees. In the early stages, you can do without the use of "chemistry", it is often enough to remove only a few affected leaves or fruits to prevent the disease from spreading. Do not forget about preventive measures - loosening the soil, removing fallen leaves, dry and broken shoots, as well as covering all wounds on the plant.