The names of apple trees in modern nurseries speak little to the gardener, and the descriptions of varieties seem similar to each other. But there was a time when each grade was unique, and any student could distinguish it from others.
To find a colorful and spreading garden in the Moscow region is not an easy task. Apple trees with lush crowns have been replaced by compact dwarf trees. Buying seedlings with attractive names Mantet or Amulet, Arista or Remo, we kind of play the lottery, because know almost nothing about new varieties. But not so long ago the variety variety was not so rich. But then, tearing an apple from a tree and still not even biting off a piece, one could imagine how it would taste.
Vintage apple varieties have not sunk into oblivion, rare specimens can still be found on the dacha plots. Let's remember the names of all your favorite apples and think about why they are losing popularity.
The aroma of these apples, renowned for Bunin, became their trademark. "Fragrance" fruits begin soon after removal, continuing to delight with a delicate smell for several months. In summer, the fruits are green and not appetizing. But during storage they acquire a straw yellow hue. It is very unpretentious in the bed: without much effort, you can save the crop until the new year and even until spring.
Trees are usually vigorous, with an oval crown, which with age becomes sprawling and takes the form of a ball. Begin to fructify 7-8 years after planting. At first, the fruits are given irregularly, but with time steadily, once every 2 years, they delight us with a rich harvest. Classic (non-genetically modified) varietyAntonovki - one of the most productive. The tree and at the age of 100 can produce up to 300 kg of apples.
Antonov apples are considered the champion of iron content. This can be noticed even with the naked eye: the cut of the apple very quickly turns brown. And in combination with organic acids that make up the apple, this iron is very well absorbed.
Actively used in breeding. Here are some varieties born thanks toAntonovke: Imrus, The Bogatyr, In Memory of a Warrior, Orlov, March, Friendship of Peoples.
Storage: at high humidity and temperature around 0 ° C 4-5 months.
The form: rounded glass with strongly pronounced ribs in the lower part.
Colour: greenish during ripening, yellow during storage.
Taste qualities: sour with different flavors. Tasting score - 4.2 points.
Aport - A variety of red apples with a rich sweet-sour taste and light spicy notes. Fruits are large: average weight is about 250 g, but with proper care there are real giants - up to 900 g. The color of the pulp varies from white to cream with a medium grain structure and a sweetish aroma. The peel is shiny, medium thickness.
The tree is vigorous, its height is about 6 m, and the spreading round crown grows to 7 m in diameter. Medium frost resistant. The first productive crop yields at 10-15 years of age, although fruiting occurs at the 7-8th year after planting.
Fruiting continues until the age of 40. It is characterized by a pronounced cyclical (full cycle - 4 years).
The frost resistance of the apple is low. And it is not surprising, because warm Italy is considered the homeland of the variety. However, scientists have already bred more resistant to the harsh winters of the species.
Removable maturity: end of September - beginning of October.
Storage: 2-4 months in a cool place.
The form: ribbed, truncated conical.
Colour: uniform scarlet blush against the background of pale yellow skin.
Taste qualities: sweet and sour with a spicy touch and a wine aftertaste. Tasting score - 4.6-5 points.
Delicate tasteWhite filling not to be confused with anything. Under the thin skin with gray or greenish dots hidden snow-white, loose and juicy flesh. Fruits in the garden ripen among the first: you can feast on poured apples, when most apple trees are just beginning to form a crop.
The trees are of medium size, reaching 3-4 m in height. Begin to bear fruit on the 4-6th year after planting two-year seedlings. Shirokopyramidalnaya at a young age, the crown gradually becomes rounded. The variety is winter hardy, it has an average resistance to pests. It needs pollinators, because self-infertile.
White filling also known as Paping, although in the State Register these summer apple varieties are described as different. Widely used in breeding as the original form. With his participation more than 20 new varieties were created.
Among the main disadvantages of the variety White filling - short shelf life due to rotting. In addition, the harvest of these apples can not be transported: they quickly lose their presentation, the slightest blow leads to the appearance of dark spots.
Removable maturity: 25-th of August. The removal is carried out in two stages. The first is about 5-10 August. The second - by August 20-25.
Storage: 2-3 weeks.
The form: Rounded-conical with noticeable wide ribs, often there is a sharp longitudinal "seam" -folding of the skin.
Colour: greenish yellow with whitish bloom in the phase of removal.
Taste qualities: sweet and sour. Overripe fruit tasteless. Tasting score - 4.7 points.
Robin - early summer old variety of national selection. Fruits are medium-sized (80-130 g), but their small weight and size compensate for the early term of ripening and pleasant refreshing taste. PulpRobins snow-white with pinkish streaks under the skin.
The tree is of medium size, in height it reaches from 3 to 5 m. The span of the branches in diameter is not more than 4 m. The rate of early variability is average. The first fruits are given on the 3-4th year after planting, and the maximum yield occurs on the 6-8th year. And the harvest itself is rarely too rich. In addition, the fruits are stored very long. Although, on the other hand, early apples usually do not store, but immediately eat, because at this time the garden does not usually indulge with an abundance of fruit.
Because of the thin skin and juicy tender pulp to transportRobin very difficult.
Harvesting: the end of July - the beginning of September.
Storage: 2-3 weeks.
The form: rounded, conical in the upper part, strongly ribbed, uneven.
Colour: From greenish to yellow with a uniform shading on a pink background.
Taste qualities: dessert sweet-sour taste.
Pepinka - autumn-winter variety of national selection. At one time, was one of the best varieties for technical processing. Huge plus apple trees - annual and abundant yields.
Tree srednerosly with wide weeping crown. It grows very quickly. The fruits are rather small (70-80 g), are colored yellow and have a diffuse blush on the sunny side.
Enters fructification early (approximately from 4 years after landing), from 7-8 years gives an industrial harvest. With age, there is an increase in yield, but at the same time there is a tendency to cyclical fruiting and grinding of the fruits themselves.
Winter hardiness is average. In the northern areas of the middle zone may freeze out.
Removable maturity: first half of September.
Storage: 2-3 months.
The form: from round to ovoid.
Colour: yellow or cream with a carmine blush on the sunny side of the fruit.
Taste qualities: tartrate taste with spice and delicate aroma. Tasting score - 4.3 points.
Rennet, or Rene, - a common name for several varieties at once - Golden, Ural, Yermolaeva, Honey etc. The color of the fruit can be either red or yellow, depending on the variety. Small apples, the average weight ranges from 18 g (Wild Siberian) up to 40 (Honey), but the tree is always as if strewn with them (6 pieces in one nest).
The tree is of medium size (the height of an adult tree is up to 6-6.5 m) and high yield. True, fruiting occurs periods. It has increased resistance to scab and other diseases.
Fruits are unequal with dense pulp of white color. The taste is freshish with a well-perceptible sourness. Weight can reach 180 g. Valued for an incredibly long shelf life - the fruit can be stored until the next harvest. Begins to bear fruit on the 5-6th year after planting.
Removable maturity: September - the beginning of October.
Storage: up to 6 months, however, during long-term storage, they lose their acidity and become more fresh.
The form: round or oval.
Colour: varies from light green to red. On the sunny side there is a blush.
Taste qualities: tart with northern sourness, sweeter fruits become after the first frost.
Sharopai - early winter apple variety with large fruits of irregular shape. Pulp of a greenish-yellow shade, friable, coarse-grained. There are several varieties of this variety with different topcoat, there are fruits and no topcoat at all. Fruits are pure green-yellow with rust in the stalk.
The trees themselves are medium strong with a wide rounded or spreading crown. The ends of the branches are drooping. Medium-sized fruits, usually asymmetrical. The flesh is white, slightly yellowish, dense, coarse-grained, rather juicy, sour, low taste, without aroma.
Enters fructification for 5-6th year after landing.
Harvesting: end of September.
Storage: about 5 months.
The form: conical, unequally, strongly ribbed.
Colour: light green or greenish-yellow, after storage - yellow-wax, there is a pink-red blush in the form of intermittent blurred merging strips.
Taste qualities: sourish.
Shtriel (Autumn striped, Shtreyfling autumn)
Reading the description of the variety of apples Dresser, many may recognize the familiar in him Autumn striped, Lifland, Gravenshteinskoe. The apple tree does have many names, but the gardeners' love for this fruit tree remains the same.
Apple trees have high growth rates and attract attention with their power. In adulthood, the height reaches 7-8 m. The wide domed crown in diameter can reach 9 m.
The flesh is yellowish, sometimes with a slight pinkish tinge closer to the skin.
Apple tree has a low drought tolerance. But in the second half of summer, when there is no rain, it can shed its leaves.
Enters the period of fructification late - for the 8th year, and productivity increases only by 15 year.
Harvesting: the beginning of September, when the apple gets a greenish tint.
Storage: up to 2 months.
The form: rounded, rarely one-sided fruits.
Colour: greenish-yellow or yellow with a characteristic blush of vertical stripes, covering about half of the fruit.
Taste qualities: sweet with sour.
Where did the ancient apples go?
Whatever the advantages of the ancient summer, autumn and winter varieties of apples, the fact remains: they are found in gardens less and less. What can we say, even buying their seedlings is not an easy task. Where are the well-known and beloved fruit trees?
- Interest in new varieties. When neighbors vigorously boast trendy apple varieties, it’s even a little embarrassing to admit that you only have White filling and Antonovka. Everything new is of great interest to us. Therefore, the appearance in the gardens of fruit trees with unusual names is quite understandable. Well, because the area of the plot is not rubber, it is often necessary to uproot an old tree in order to plant a new one.
- Inability to grow in small areas. Few people in the suburbs can boast a really big shady garden. On standard 6 acres, as a rule, it is possible to plant just a couple of fruit trees. And then you have to carefully choose a place so that the shadow of them does not fall on the neighbor's plot. But most of the old varieties of apple trees have a spreading crown and a powerful root system. They create a dense shade, and their rhizome makes it difficult to grow other crops and makes weeding difficult. Therefore dwarf trees are in high demand lately.
- Long wait for the harvest. Apple varieties of old varieties live long: some of them can be 100 years old. Such a long period of life allows them to bear fruit far from the 2-3rd year after planting. Sometimes the first serious harvest has to wait 10-15 years. And it does not suit modern gardeners who want to see the result of their labors as soon as possible.
- Complicated care. A tall and spreading tree is much more difficult to care for than a dwarf tree. Pest management, pruning and even harvesting are all difficult. In addition, old apple trees react poorly to the cardinal pruning, responding to the explosive growth of the “top” shoots, which take away the “force” from the tree but never produce fruit.
- Non-compliance with modern standards. Most vintage varieties of apples do not maintain modern standards. They are not stored for too long, crumpled during transport and subject to all sorts of diseases.
Older apple trees are in many respects inferior to selection novelties. But after all the majority of modern good grades - only modification of known apples. However, in the race for storage time, transportability, attractive appearance and resistance to pests, the unique taste qualities of famous apples are often lost or beyond recognition. So if you have preserved old trees in the garden, do not rush them up. It will take a little more time, and they will become a real rarity.