Sometimes it is possible to face a situation when the harvest of garlic begins to deteriorate during storage. We will tell you what the problem is and how to cope with it.
The quality and keeping quality of garlic is largely dependent on the state of the plant during the growing season. Garlic can get sick due to adverse weather conditions, violations of agrotechnical measures, untimely and improper prophylactic treatment. The disease does not manifest itself immediately, so there is a high probability that if at least one head was infected at the time of harvest, the disease will spread to healthy garlic in the storage room, destroying the entire crop.
Most often, garlic suffers from fungal and bacterial diseases. How to recognize and warn them?
This fungal disease occurs very often when storing garlic. The target is primarily the weakened tissue of the bulbs. The teeth are covered with gray bloom - spores of the fungus. The main cause of this infection is infected planting material.
This disease usually appears 2-3 months after the start of storage. With the defeat of green mold garlic cloves become sluggish, they appear dented stains of yellow. Gradually, the disease spreads inside, the teeth become soft, shriveled and emit the characteristic smell of mildew. White patches form on the spots, which eventually becomes bluish-green.
The fungi that cause the disease persist in the soil, on plant debris, indoors and in containers. They actively develop at high humidity and air temperature from -5 to 36 ° C.
Black mold, or garlic sootiness
A black patina, similar to dust, forms on the teeth. With a strong defeat of the garlic heads wrinkle. Fungi develop very quickly, are easily carried by the wind and infect the remaining heads. In conditions of high humidity, the disease manifests itself within 4 days.
This disease affects not only garlic, but also onions, vegetables, fruits. Light yellow or brown watery spots appear on the heads (mainly on the outer scales and the bottom), which eventually become covered with a bluish-green mold. At a section of the struck clove, brown-gray watery spots are seen.
The disease manifests itself 2 months after harvest. If the garlic is stored in a dry place, the infected heads dry out quickly.
Most often, penicillosis is actively developing when mechanical damage to the heads of garlic during the laying of the storage. Pathogens (conidia) penetrate through cuts.
During storage, the infected head becomes soft and watery. When cut, the fabric becomes pink in color. Gradually, the garlic begins to rot.
The causative agent of fusarium remains in the soil, on plant residues, and is also transmitted with infected planting material.
Spring garlic is more resistant to fusarium.
Deep clots form on the cloves of garlic, and the internal scales turn into a slimy mass with an unpleasant odor.
How to protect garlic from diseases?
It is very difficult to stop the development of the disease, therefore only preventive measures are effective.
- Observe crop rotation (plant garlic in its place no earlier than in 3 years).
- Place the garlic beds away from other onion crops.
- During the growing season, promptly remove the affected plants.
- Observe the irrigation mode, do not allow the thickening of the landings.
- After harvesting, clear the field of plant residues.
- Before laying garlic, thoroughly disinfect the store.
- Use healthy planting material.
- Dry the harvested garlic thoroughly, and store only heads without visible damage.
- Store garlic in a dry place at a temperature of 1-3 ° C and a humidity of not more than 75%.
- When you find the first signs of rot, carefully sort and remove all affected heads.
- 1-2 days before planting garlic cloves, treat with biofungicide in accordance with the instructions attached to the preparation.
Observe these preventive measures and properly care for the plant during the growing season. Then during storage, garlic will remain healthy.