Pheromone traps are designed to lure insects and moths with the help of certain odors, characteristic only of representatives of this species. The traps are easy to handle, environmentally friendly and can be used several times.
The communication system of insects among themselves is much thinner and richer than that of humans. Sometimes it can be used for its own purposes, for example, in order to fight pests. A significant breakthrough in the development of the science of the communications of arthropods occurred in connection with the discovery of pheromones. Thanks to these chemicals, individual for each species, insects distinguish individuals of their own species and sex from others. Components and a set of substances learned to synthesize, using their action for pest control.
To create traps used pheromone, characteristic of the females of any particular type of pest. Separating it, females attract males, which fly in clouds to smell. This smell was learned to "hide" in capsules and create traps of a special design. The simplest version consists of two parts - a capsule impregnated with synthesized sex pheromone and a container with a sticky bottom. Males fly to the smell, fall into the trap and stick to the sticky liquid.
The advantages of pheromone traps over pesticides and other "chemicals" are that they are non-toxic and completely safe for humans. Capsules are charged with pheromones in the amount of only 1-3 mg. At the same time, pheromones are volatile substances, which are destroyed by exposure to sunlight, moisture and temperature. They do not accumulate in the air and soil and do not pollute them.
Beneficial and harmless insects do not fall into the trap.
The bait evaporator is also widely used. It looks like a rubber tube, cut lengthwise and rolled into a ring. Inside it lay a pheromone bait and hang a ring on a branch. Males are attracted to the rich aroma of pheromones, and they fly to the smell. As a result, the females remain "unheeded", and the natural cycle of fertilization is broken. Such traps are often set at some distance from the site in order to repel insects from it.
In amateur gardening and in small areas, pheromone traps are used to capture and destroy such pests as moths, moths, glass bowls, moths, beetles and leafworms.
The pheromone trap also serves as an indicator to determine the beginning of the pest breeding season. Each year, due to the nature of the climate and other factors, this period occurs at different times. If you find insects and butterflies trapped in the first trap, then it is time for active protection. This will allow you to adjust its methods and determine the amount of invasion that your landing may undergo.
Large farms and horticultural complexes use pheromone traps to disorientate pests and disrupt the natural reproduction process and increase the population size. Males feel the "flavor" for a few kilometers and you can keep insects away from the garden by setting traps away from the main landings.
Sexual attractants (the so-called substances used in pheromone traps) are allocated to hundreds of species of pests. However, the design and principle of operation of almost all traps are almost identical, as well as tips for installing and placing them. Consider the main ones:
- There are no special requirements for handling pheromone traps. Refill it with a capsule on the street or in a ventilated room immediately before installation on a tree. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap after handling the trap;
- hide traps on the north or west side of the crown (so that they get a little sunny color) at the height of human growth. Place them at the ends in the direction of the prevailing winds, thereby increasing insect catchability. Such an arrangement makes it possible to observe their summer, number, change of generations, etc .;
- pheromone capsule lasts for 1-1.5 months. Thus, for the season you need about 2-3 capsules for apple, pear, plum and cherry plum;
- glue panels, if they are removable, change as they are filled with pests;
- pheromone traps and capsules should be stored separately from paints, chemicals and protective equipment, as well as other substances with a strong and acrid smell.
So, pheromone traps are designed to both destroy and disorientate males of insects and pest butterflies. Also, these "traps" are used to monitor the number and composition of pests on the plots. In many cases, they successfully replace many insecticides and insect drugs.