Can you tell about eye peronosporosis from bacteriosis of cucumbers? Often the wrong diagnosis of diseases causes the wrong treatment of cucumbers. Learn how to avoid this.
One of the most popular cultures in the world is subject to a number of diseases that can destroy cucumbers at any stage of development. In order to identify the disease in time and begin treatment, it is necessary to know the main signs that indicate the onset of plant damage. So, what is the most common cucumber sick?
One of the most dangerous diseases of cucumbers, attacking and seedlings, and adult plants. Also affects watermelon, melon and pumpkin. And with the same success plants are affected in the greenhouse and open ground. Weak plants die quickly. A classic example of when a disease is easier to prevent than to treat later.
Light gray spots are formed along the edges of the leaves, gradually spreading over the entire leaf area. Black blotches appear on them - spores of the fungus. On the stem, shoots and neck of the root are formed small whitish-brown spots. In case of secondary lesion by bacteria, gum (exudate) is released. Fruits turn black and mummified or covered with a dense network of black dots.
|Active period||Most actively manifested during the fruiting period.|
|How is formed||The disease is infectious. The fungus can remain in a state of suspended animation in the soil and on the stems for a long time. It is carried with organic debris, through the air and sometimes found in infected seeds.|
|What cucumbers are amazing||Most often affects greenhouse cucumbers.|
|Result||Affected fruit is not suitable for food. The plant, affected by ascochitis in the last stage, is hardly cured and, as a rule, dies completely.|
|Control measures||1. Avoid temperature fluctuations and cold water irrigation.|
2. Use of seeds from proven manufacturers, treated accordingly.
3. Annual steaming and fumigation of the soil, disinfection of the greenhouse with 2-5% formalin solution (liquid consumption 1 l per 1 sq. M).
4. Spraying Bordeaux 1% liquid, copper sulfate (5 g per 10 liters of water) with the addition of urea (10 g per 10 liters of water).
5. To eliminate the disease on the stalk it is coated with copper-chalk powder (mixture of copper sulfate and chalk 1: 1).
Ascochito-resistant cucumber varieties: Amazon, Meadow F1, Romance F1, Abundant, Prolific, Leningrad hothouse.
The full name of this disease is: "angular cucumber leaf spot"It affects any pumpkin, provoking and dying leaves. Bacteriosis spreads in a warm and humid environment. Frequent and heavy rains, alternating with heat, cause bacterial activity followed by death of 50-70% of the crop. Necrotic spots are the last stage of bacteriosis development, after which the plant is no longer save.
Bacteriosis manifests itself in any parts of plants (cotyledons, leaves, flowers, fruits). The main symptom is the formation of brown oily spots. Their number gradually increases from 1 to 50. In dry weather, the spots become covered with a crust and fall off along with part of the leaf. At the end of the leaves are alone streaks.
|Active period||The whole growing season, especially spring and autumn.|
|How is formed||It is transmitted through seeds collected from infected plants. Grown plants are weak with few fruits.|
|What cucumbers are amazing||Particularly actively developed in film greenhouses, but also affects crops planted in open ground.|
|Result||As a rule, die up to 50% of the crop. Even if fruiting has begun, there will be few fruits and they will also be unfit for consumption.|
|Control measures||1. Collect seeds only from healthy plants.|
2. Disinfection of the frame and frame of the greenhouse, whitewash, etc.
3. Airing the greenhouse - the air temperature in it should not exceed 25 ° C. (humidity 65-70%).
4. Seed treatment with TMTD preparations (4-8 g per 1 kg of seeds) or Fitolavin-300.
5. In case of necrosis of the root collar, a 0.2% solution of the drug Fitolavin-300 is used.
Bacteriosis-resistant cucumber varieties: Vyaznikovsky 37, Elegant, Competitor, Nezhensky 12, Far Eastern 6, Far Eastern 12.
Gardeners this disease is more commonly known as olive cucumber spot. It is caused by a fungus that is very resistant to adverse environmental conditions, although it is more common in southern and humid areas. In heated glass greenhouses with dry air, it is less common.
More often affected young fruit. They bend and small brown and dark brown spots appear on them. Less commonly, leaves and stems that are covered with a network of small brown spots are sick. Over time, these spots dry out and form sores and scabs.
|Active period||From June to the end of August.|
|How is formed||On healthy shoots gets any ways: with insects, tools, contaminated weeds, shoes and clothing, wind, etc.|
|What cucumbers are amazing||Mostly greenhouse (growing in film greenhouses, less often - in glass).|
|Result||The leaves and stems die off, the fruits cannot be eaten, they rot quickly and are not stored for a long time.|
|Control measures||1. Disinfection of greenhouses and tools at the end of the season, destruction of old plants.|
2. Maintain a uniform temperature.
3. Airing the greenhouse (the level of humidity in it should not exceed 80%).
4. Spraying bushes Bordeaux liquid (1% solution).
5. Treatment with 0.3-0.4% solution of copper oxychloride. 3-4 times per season with an interval of 10-12 days.
Resistant to cladosporiosis cucumber varieties: Adam F1, Amazon F1, Amur 1801 F1, Cornflower F1, Aquarius, Hector F1, Danila F1, Makar F1, March F1.
Root rot is a disease of extremes. As a result of abundant watering, soil moisture rises, and the air in it becomes less and less. The root system of cucumbers weakens and becomes vulnerable to pathogens. This also leads to a high concentration of salts in the soil, and the drying of the root system. The causative agents of the disease first settle on weak and dead areas, and then are taken for healthy plant tissue. In other words, it is easier for cucumbers to pick up root rot than to avoid it.
The stem becomes thin and dries out. When digging a plant, it is clear that the neck and root system are affected by brown burns. In hot weather, the leaves wither and die. The roots and stem become rotten and darken.
|Active period||Almost the entire season.|
|How is formed||Unfavorable growing conditions, mistakes in agricultural technology.|
|What cucumbers are amazing||Any growing in greenhouse conditions. Appearance of rot in open ground planting is not excluded.|
|Result||With the defeat of the roots, the aerial part of the plant also dies. The earlier the infection occurred, the higher the probability of the death of the entire crop. Fruits grow weak and underdeveloped.|
|Control measures||1. Update the soil before each season.|
2. Water only with warm water.
3. Powder the lower part of plants with chalk, sawdust, sand or peat.
4. Remove diseased plants from the garden.
5. Reducing the intensity of irrigation, the application of bleach (150-200 g per 1 sq. M) and loosening rake.
Resistant to root rot cucumber varieties: Advance F1, Benefit F1, Orlik F1, Valdai F1, May F1, Fairground F1, Gypsy F1.
This disease is also called cucumber mosaic virus, and it combines several similar symptoms of the disease (white cucumber mosaic, green speckled (English) mosaic and ordinary). It affects most plants and garden crops (more than 700). A sharp activation of the virus occurs when the ambient temperature rises to 28-30 ° C. On young plants, the mosaic can be seen 20-30 days after planting the seedlings to a permanent place. Mosaic patterns are most often found on leaves that look unhealthy.
Leaves become wrinkled and reduced. The stem cracks along the entire length. The number of female flowers and fruits is reduced. Zelentsy become covered with spots, grow worse and die quickly.
|Active period||From the end of May to the end of August.|
|How is formed||The virus is transmitted with the juice of diseased plants during a pick. It penetrates through wounds and damage, persists in plant debris and inventory. Mosaic carriers such as aphids are actively spreading.|
|What cucumbers are amazing||Previously, mosaic was mainly a disease of open ground, but recently it is also found in greenhouses.|
|Result||Fruits grow with dense yellow flesh, for food and for storage are of little use.|
|Control measures||1. Thermal presowing disinfection of seeds for 3 days.|
2. Disinfection of containers and instruments with a solution of potassium permanganate or bleach.
3. Elimination of pumpkin crops and weeds next to the planting of cucumbers.
4. Before sowing, seed treatment should be carried out with a 15% trisodium phosphate solution or a potassium permanganate solution.
5. Prevent the reproduction of aphids - one of the main carriers of the disease.
Mosaic-resistant cucumber varieties: Adam F1, Amur 1801 F1, Anyuta F1, Vicenta F1, Hector F1, Danila F1, Makar F1, Martha F1.
Mealy dew on cucumbers
Mealy dew is the result of a rainy and cool summer. Sometimes, acid rain or chemistry on the leaves is mistakenly considered as its cause. But then it is not clear how the cucumbers are affected in the greenhouse and under the shelters. In fact, the cause of powdery mildew is a fungus, which eventually infects flowers, stems and leaves. If pumpkins, zucchini, radish, squash and turnip grow near the cucumbers, then most likely they will also end up in the “affected area”.
On the underside of the leaves appears subtle white bloom. Gradually, rounded white spots appear on the upper part, which darken with time. The leaves become undulating and dry up. Fruits gorchat and also dehydrated.
|Active period||Mid-end of summer.|
|How is formed||Fungal disease spreads with drip moisture. Hibernates on other (including affected) plants.|
|What cucumbers are amazing||Any, strongest in film greenhouses.|
|Result||Leaf leaf area reaches 100%, the plant loses fluid, as a result of which few fruits are formed.|
|Control measures||1. Disinfection of soil and seed and planting powdery mildew resistant varieties.|
2. Spraying the plants with a solution of baking soda (0.4%) with the addition of soap.
3. Use of drugs Pseudobacterin-2 and Baktofit.
4. Among the chemical agents, treatment recommended by Novosil, Topaz, Privent, Cumulus, Karatan.
Resistant to powdery mildew cucumber varieties: Adam F1, Amur 1801 F1, Anyuta F1, Athlete F1, Cornflower F1, Vicenta F1, Voyage F1, Vyaznikovsky 37, Hector F1, Danila F1, Delpina F1, Swallow F1, Navruz F1, Romance F1, Svyatoslav F1, Julian F1.
Peronosporosis of cucumbers
That is how it is scientifically called downy mildew. This disease affects the leaves of cucumbers, squash and pumpkins. Until 1980, it was known only to residents of the Far East, but the fungus quickly spread and became a frequent guest in the middle zone and a temperate climate zone. The main condition for the defeat of cucumber peronospora is increased humidity, which allows zoospores to penetrate the leaves.
Peronosporosis appears on the leaves as light yellow spots, which darken as the tissue dies. At the bottom of the formed gray-purple bloom.
|Active period||From June to the end of August.|
|How is formed||Spores are carried by the wind from neighboring sites and come across in the seeds. Cold watering, high humidity, temperature drops and condensation contribute to the development of the disease.|
|What cucumbers are amazing||Greenhouse and growing in open ground.|
|Result||Deprived of sunlight, the plant quickly dies, infecting others.|
|Control measures||1. Seed treatment before planting, warming and disinfection with potassium permanganate solution.|
2. Planting in healthy soil, timely feeding and watering with warm water.
3. At the first signs of the disease, treating plants with Bordeaux liquid or any copper-containing fungicide.
4. Urea solution helps well - 1 g per 1 l of water.
5. If the fungus is manifested at the end of the season, you can safely harvest (the fruits remain edible) and then burn the plants.
Resistant to respecific cucumber varieties: Alphabet F1, Lord F1, Chestnut F1, Compass F1, Acorn F1, Alphabet F1, Buyan F1, Grasshopper F1, Boy with a finger F1, Ant F1, Moscow evenings F1.
The subspecies of mold fungi Fusarium has long been fond of cucumbers, especially weakened and growing in a medium that is favorable for the development of fungi. It acts as a parasite, symbiote and generally does everything to destroy the young landing. Fusarium kills up to 60% of the crop, showing the greatest activity in the south and southeast, as well as the Far Eastern regions. At an early stage, the disease is diagnosed by a drooping top at noon.
The upper part of the plant fades during the day and recovers at night. After the appearance of the ovaries, the leaves turn yellow and the whips dry. Subsequently, the plants dry out and no longer grow.
|Active period||During flowering and fruiting.|
|How is formed||The causative agent of the disease penetrates the plant through the root system. Within a few days after infection, a mycelium is formed inside the vessels, which gradually destroys the plant. Sources of the disease - infected seeds and soil.|
|What cucumbers are amazing||In greenhouse conditions, dying up to 50% of the crop. In open ground, cucumbers are less affected.|
|Result||If time does not take action, the plants quickly die.|
|Control measures||1. Cultivation of planting material and disinfection of the soil.|
2. Disinfection of the instrument, compliance with crop rotation, replacement of the substrate.
3. Regular airing of the greenhouse with inspection of the root system.
4. Removal and burning of affected specimens.
5. The use of chemicals like Privikura.
Fusarium-resistant cucumber varieties: Parker F1, Hector F1, Dolomite F1, Alex F1, Christina F1.
Along with agrotechnical methods, biotechnical means and real "chemistry", there are popular methods for the prevention and treatment of diseases of cucumbers.
Folk remedies are more for the prevention of diseases of cucumbers
- For 1 liter of milk, take 30 drops of iodine and add 20 g of grated soap. The solution is thoroughly mixed and sprayed plants every 10 days throughout the growth - this will save them from most diseases.
- 50 g of garlic are crushed and diluted with the resulting slurry in 1 liter of water. The composition must be infused during the day. The resulting mixture is filtered and diluted with 9 liters of water. Garlic solution prevents powdery mildew.
- 1 cup of wood ash pour 2 liters of boiling water and infuse for 2 days. Also diluted with water 10 g of soap and added to the resulting composition. Cucumbers are sprayed at least 2 times with an interval of 7 days.
- Whey is heated to a temperature of 25 ° C and diluted in a bucket of water in a ratio of 1: 7, and then sprayed all planting.
- In a bucket of water put two handfuls of onion peel, boil it for 30 minutes and leave to cool. Then the broth is filtered and diluted with water 2: 1. And after watering cucumbers from watering cans.
The fight against diseases of cucumbers, especially in the final stages, is a complex process that does not always end with a victory for the vegetable grower. The main measures to preserve and increase the harvest, is compliance with agricultural practices and timely prevention of diseases.