It is necessary to alternate garden crops on the plot wisely, because it is not enough just to swap them, you also need to know the sequence and system of crop rotation.
When growing the same crop in one place for several years in a row, the soil is depleted, pathogens accumulate in it, and the pests out of habit "gather" to their favorite vegetables. You can rectify the situation, if in the new season to plant plants in other beds. However, not everything is as simple as it may seem at first glance.
What is crop rotation and why should it be observed?
In simple terms, crop rotation is the alternation of garden crops on the site. Scientists identify 3 main reasons why it should be followed:
- the soil is less littered with weeds, less pathogens and pests settle in it;
- with proper crop rotation, an optimal topsoil structure is maintained, in which garden crops grow;
- during a deliberate crop rotation, the land is not depleted, but, on the contrary, is replenished with the necessary nutrients.
If different crops are planted at the same place every year, the soil will heal and its nutrients will be spent more rationally. The fact is that some plants consume useful elements from the top layer of soil, and others from the bottom. In addition, these substances are consumed in different quantities.
In addition, the roots of many plants produce toxins. Usually, cultures from the same family are sensitive to them. This is especially noticeable in the beds with beets, carrots and spinach. If you plant these vegetables in the same place for several years in a row, each subsequent crop is usually worse than the previous one, since toxins inhibit the development of plants. Proper crop rotation levels this effect, healing the soil.
Least sensitive to toxins excreted by precursors, legumes, maize, leeks.
Even if the roots of plants almost do not emit toxins during the growing season, in the future it can do plant residues - stems and foliage. Therefore, it is recommended to remove the tops of plants such as cucumbers, peppers, carrots, horseradish, cabbage, sunflower, and numerous weeds at the end of the season from the beds and lay them in the compost heaps. On the basis of green waste, you can prepare organic supplements (infusions and decoctions), as well as means to control pests.
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How to alternate plants?
In order to properly alternate planting and make a rational scheme of crop rotation, it is important to know which family this or that plant belongs to. Because representatives of the same family, as a rule, suffer from the same diseases and are attacked by the same pests. For example, after lettuce and root celery, root rot pathogens often lurk in the soil. The cabbage can be attacked by a cabbage fly, sometimes the cabbies are struck by the keel, after which it is undesirable to plant a vegetable in this place for about 6 years. Thus, it is impossible, for example, to sow dill to replace carrots. These crops belong to the same family - Celery.
Interestingly, crop rotation should be observed not only when growing vegetables, as many mistakenly believe. If you think that flowers and medicinal plants can not be "relatives" of vegetables, then you are mistaken. Even as they can! For example, tulips and onions-slizun - almost native "brothers". So, if you broke a flower bed at the place of a flower bed, it does not mean at all that vegetables will grow well on it. It is important to choose the right culture followers.
Especially for you, we have compiled a table of belonging of different cultures to families.
Artichoke, aster, dahlia, calendula, kosmeya, daisy, oat root, dandelion, tansy, sunflower, rudbeckia, lettuce, chicory salad, scoroner, yarrow, chrysanthemum, zinnia, string, tarragon, echinacea
Beans, vetch, peas, lupins, soybeans, beans, lentils
Buckwheat, rhubarb, sorrel
Rutabaga, daikon, cabbage (white cabbage, Brussels sprout, Chinese, kohlrabi, red, Peking, Savoy, cauliflower), katran, watercress, levkoy, mustard, lobo, radish, radish, turnip, horseradish
Begonias, onions (batun, fragrant, stacked, leeks, onions, roamball, slizun, shallot, shnitt), lilies, tulips, ramson, garlic
Ornamental quinoa, chard, beetroot, spinach.
Eggplant, belladonna, potatoes, nightshade, pepper, petunia, tobacco, tomato, physalis.
Anise, chervil, coriander (cilantro), carrot, parsnip, parsley, celery, cumin, dill, fennel.
Watermelon, wild cucumber, melon, zucchini, crucneca, lagenaria, luffa, melodria, momordica, cucumber, squash, stepping stone, tladiant, cyclanter, chayote, echinocystis.
Basil, Hyssop, marjoram, lemon balm, peppermint, savory.
Compatibility of vegetable crops
If you want to place the maximum number of different crops in one garden, you also need to take into account their compatibility with other plants. Some "capricious" vegetables do not get along well with their neighbors, and tolerant crops, on the contrary, have a positive effect on "roommates".
So, carrots and onions are an example of perfect coexistence in the garden. The most dangerous pests of these crops are carrot and onion flies. But the carrot fly does not tolerate the smell of onions, and the onion - carrots. Therefore, plants from such a tandem perfectly protect each other from insect attacks.
- Mixed planting: choose the best neighbors for plantsWe understand which plants best used for common garden crops.
Plant Nutrient Needs
To determine the belonging of plants to the same family is only half the battle. Another important factor that should be taken into account in crop rotation is the plant's need for nutrients.
When selecting crops for subsequent planting, one should know that it is impossible to plant the same bed several years in a row with crops with a high demand for trace elements.
- Cultures with high demand in nutrients: cabbage, potatoes, rhubarb, celery, asparagus, pumpkin, spinach.
- Cultures with average demand in nutrients: eggplant, curling beans, melon, kohlrabi, leek, cucumber, radish, beet, tomato, horseradish, spinach.
- Plants with small need in nutrients: peas, bush beans, onions, spicy herbs, radishes, lettuce.
The correct crop rotation looks like this: in the first year, the most “voracious” crop is grown in the garden, in the following year - plants from the second and third groups, in the fourth year they apply fertilizer and again plant a crop with a high need for nutrients.
Thus, it turns out that each plant should return to its original place no earlier than after 4 years. In order to achieve this, it is best to divide the plot into small beds, and each year “shift” the crops to the next place.
Good predecessors of vegetable crops
Plants feed on substances that are not taken from the soil of previous cultures. When planning planting, please note that after that plant in the garden.
|Legumes||All kinds of cabbage, potatoes, cucumber, zucchini, pumpkin, onion, garlic, eggplant, pepper|
|Cabbage, beets||Cucumber, potatoes, peppers, carrots, beans, pumpkin, eggplant|
|Potatoes||Cabbage, cucumber, pumpkin, onion, garlic, carrot|
|Onion garlic||Cabbage, potatoes, legumes, greens, radishes|
|Carrot||Cucumber, potatoes, cabbage, tomato, legumes|
|Cucumber, pumpkin, zucchini||Cabbage, beans, onion, garlic, corn|
|Pepper, eggplant||Cabbage, cucumber, zucchini, pumpkin, onion, garlic, legumes, carrots|
|Tomato||Cucumber, carrot, cabbage, onion, beet|
Siderates for soil improvement
Supporters of organic farming manage to do without mineral fertilizers, correctly alternating plants in the beds. After all, there are plants that enrich the soil with useful substances. First of all, we are talking about siderats - green fertilizers with a powerful root system and a rapidly developing green mass. They are sown between main crops or in areas that are empty after harvest, and then mown and plowed into the ground.
- Siderats: the secrets of using green fertilizerThanks to the siderata plants, it is possible to significantly improve the soil on the site. The main thing is to know how to use them correctly.
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But there are also plants that are able to produce a crop, at the same time improving the quality of the soil. Such crops include, for example, legumes (peas, beans, etc.). Nodule bacteria in their roots enrich the soil with nitrogen.
If you plan to use legumes as siderats, it is important that they have managed to bloom, since the nodules on their roots are formed during this period.
And perennial legumes with a strong root system, including, for example, alfalfa, extract useful substances from the deep layers of the soil and share with vegetables, whose roots are located near the surface.
To improve soil fertility, do not leave the beds empty. At the time of "shift change" sow the site with sideratami: mustard white, phacelia, rapeseed. You can also make compost from these crops for plants that you plan to plant next season.
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Thanks to the siderata plants, it is possible to significantly improve the soil and prevent the weeds from capturing empty areas.
How can I alternate plants in a small area?
Crop rotation is an agricultural concept. However, this does not mean that it can not be carried out in a separate garden. Even as you can! Here are just traditional country plots are not too suitable for them to be able to develop vigorous activity. The garden is allocated for them, at best, the fourth part. In such conditions, moving cultures from place to place can be problematic. And yet it is possible.
It is worth starting with drawing up a site plan and include both large and small objects. It is important to immediately identify the location relative to the cardinal points in order to assess the degree of illumination of certain parts of the backyard territory. Buildings, tall trees and shrubs can also affect the illumination.
The territory under the beds on this plan should be divided into 4 zones and each year “move” plants along them from a certain group in a circle. That is, at the place where cultures from the first group grew last year, representatives of the second group should be planted in the current year, etc. Thus, plants will return to their former beds every 4 years.
And here is the group of plants for a four-year crop rotation:
1 group - zucchini, cabbage, cucumbers, pumpkin, squash;
2 group - onions, radishes, tomatoes, herbs, garlic;
3 group - swede, carrot, radish, beet, parsnip, root parsley;
4 group - potatoes.
Next season, all these cultures should be on the next garden bed.
Some gardeners practice the so-called small crop rotation, when in one season early ripening varieties of various vegetables are planted in one area. In areas with a cold climate, for the organization of small crop rotation using seedlings or planted each subsequent type of vegetables in the rows.
At first glance, it seems that crop rotation is a very complicated procedure. But over time you will easily learn to understand all the wisdoms, the main thing is to start. In addition, a competent crop rotation, in which vegetables, flowers and spicy herbs in the garden are good neighbors, allows you to combine the benefits and beauty. And what else is needed for this summer resident?