If you have never planted plants before, but really want to learn, start with copulation.
This is one of the most popular and effective methods of grafting. What is the peculiarity of such a vaccination and how to do it correctly so that the plant will bring a rich harvest?
What is copulation?
This is a method of plant grafting, in which a stock and a graft of the same diameter are connected - usually from 2.5 to 5 cm. With this technique, mostly 1-2-year-old trees (apple, plum, cherry) are planted and young bushes are planted.
On the handle, which will serve as graft, make an oblique cut (at an angle of 30 degrees). On the branch stock, perform a cut of the same size.
Graft and rootstock is applied to each other so that their cambial layers coincide, after which the grafting site is wrapped with a special graft material, polyethylene or twine. It is important that during this process there is no displacement of the scion and rootstock, otherwise the tissue will not grow together.
Copulation is used only when the stock and the graft are of the same thickness.
Even a beginner can master the copulation technique - this is a big plus of this method of vaccination. And besides, the cuttings grafted in this way grow very well with the stock and produce crops soon.
Another advantage of copulation is that it can be used to plant various fruit trees and shrubs: pear, apple, grapes, and stone fruit (cherry, cherry plum, plum).
The disadvantage of this method is only in the fact that for a successful "operation" you need branches of plants of the same diameter. And in some cases it is very difficult to find a scion and a stock equal in width.
When is the best time to do copulation?
The most suitable time for copulation is early spring (from March to mid-April). It is best to plant plants before buds begin to swell on them.
In general, copulation can be carried out until June, but on the condition that the graft (cuttings) was kept at temperatures from -1 to -3 ° C until the time of vaccination. However, keep in mind that in this case the percentage of engrafted cuttings will be much lower than with the spring inoculation.
Types of plant copulation
Copulation is of two types: simple and improved.
In the first method, the stock and the graft are applied to each other in equal sections by size, after which the inoculation place is wrapped with string, tape or polyethylene. However, twigs with even cuts often grow poorly, because their cambial layers touch each other loosely.
Therefore, gardeners often resort to improved copulation. In this method, on sections of the stock and of the scion, with a sharp knife one makes a small split, which makes it possible to well join the branches of two plants. It also allows you to successfully perform a graft cutting, even if the diameter of the scion and rootstock is unequal.
Step-by-step instructions for simple copying
1. First prepare the stock. Choose a smooth branch without any damage, wipe it with a damp cloth. Then, using a special copulative knife, with a confident movement of your hand towards yourself, make an even cut at an angle of 25-30 degrees.
If you are doing copulation for the first time, first practice practicing the correct cut on any unnecessary branches.
2. Prepare the graft. To do this, select the stalk of the cultivar you want to plant, with two to four buds. Stepping 1 cm down from the lowest lower bud, make an oblique cut exactly the same size as in the stock. After that, above the second or third kidney, departing from it upwards of not more than 2 mm, make an even cut.
3. Connect the stalk to the stock so that a smooth twig is obtained.
In order for the rootstock and the scion to grow together correctly, their cambium must be the same. And this can not be achieved if the cuts are made incorrectly or blunt tool.
4. Cut a long strip 7–10 mm wide from the polyethylene film and wrap it tightly around the place of inoculation. Winding overlap so that there are no gaps. At this point, be especially careful: if you move the cuttings at least 1-2 mm, they are unlikely to grow together.
5. Top cut on the graft, cover with garden pitch. This is to ensure that the kidney, located on the edge of the cutting, is not dry.
Even a beginner can handle simple copying.
If in 10-14 days the buds germinate, the vaccine is successful. If this did not happen, it means that the cambial layers did not coincide with the graft when fixing the stock. Have to be vaccinated again.
Step-by-step instruction for improved copulation
1. Prepare the stock and graft in the same way as with simple copulation. But before joining them together, make longitudinal cuts on both cuttings with a sharp knife.
Making a cut on the graft
The depth of cut should be about 10 mm.
Making a cut on the stock
2. Then seal the stock with a graft, hooking them for each other resulting "tongues".
With improved copulation, the scion and stock hold even without strapping.
With such a compound, the cuttings will grow well together, even if they are slightly different in thickness. In this case, it is sufficient that the cambial layers coincide on at least one side of the branch.
3. As in the previous method, tightly wrap the vaccination area with polyethylene or tape, cover the upper section of the scion with garden pitch.
We wind the vaccination site
4. To buds bloomed, they must be in a humid environment. Therefore, for 7-10 days (until the first signs of leaflets) it is recommended to put a plastic bag on the stalk and firmly fasten it just below the grafting site.
We make a greenhouse for graft graft
So you will maintain the required level of moisture and do not let the kidneys dry.
Primary Care of a Grafted Plant
The most important moment in the care of such a plant - it is timely to remove shoots that will grow below the site of vaccination. Otherwise they will take away all the juices and will not allow them to develop normally.
Do not remove the strapping material as soon as the leaves appear on the handle. Let the bandage hang for 2-3 months. It only needs to be periodically weakened so that it does not pinch the growing branch and not damage the plant tissue.
The shoots that appeared below the vaccination site should not be broken open, but cut with a sharp knife. Otherwise, new shoots will grow even more intensively.
When the stock and the graft fully grow together and become a single branch, the strapping material must be carefully cut and removed.
As you can see, planting cuttings is easy, and this process does not take much time. Try it - and after a couple of years you will certainly gather in the country a rich harvest of tasty fruits!