The most dangerous pests of grapes (description and methods of control)

The pests of grapes in the garden is not easy to notice. They are either too small or look like innocuous moths. Therefore, it is important to detect them in time to process the grapes before the crop dies.

Grapes are generally quite fastidious culture, besides it is loved by all sorts of insects. We have compiled for you a detailed list of pests of grapes and found proven ways to combat them.

This is the most dangerous pest of grapes, the mass distribution of which leads to the creation of quarantine zones and the death of the crop. Outwardly, this “saboteur” does not make a terrifying impression, as it resembles a fine aphid of yellow-lemon color. In European grape varieties it is quite difficult to find it - the phylloxera hides in the root system and only occasionally falls on the leaves. On American varieties, hybrids, as well as rootstocks, the pest is based on both roots and leaves.

Larvae cause the greatest damage to the grapes (they are called vagrants). With the help of proboscis, they pierce the root tissue and begin to drink the juice. Because of this, swelling, bumps and nodules form on the roots. Having “bloody” the plant, the larvae begin to migrate, moving to the next bush along the surface of the earth or along cracks in it, and sometimes along the root system. Strictly speaking, the plant dies not from aphids, but from infections and fungi, the way in which its livelihood opens.

It is much easier for Phillocker to be brought to the vineyard than to get rid of it. It is carried by wind, water, animals, tools for tillage, distributed with planting material (seedlings). Unfortunately, there is no universal remedy for aphid, but we can give a few recommendations.

Measures to combat phylloxera:

  1. Grow European grape varieties grafted on a phylloxero-resistant stock, especially in regions where the likelihood of insects is high.
  2. Get grape resistant varieties.
  3. Carry out katarovka (removal of surface roots) and deep planting of seedlings.
  4. Before planting, treat seedlings with insecticides (BI-58, Cabofos, Fufanon, etc.) by completely immersing them in the solution. After that, keep the saplings in plastic bags at positive temperature for at least a day.
  5. If you grow grape varieties that are not resistant to phylloxera, process the bushes twice with a season with Fastak, Aktellik or Kinmiks (3 ml of Fastak dilute in 10 l of water, spray the plant at the rate of 10 l / 100 sq. M, make other preparations according to the instructions). Spend the first treatment in the period of bud blooming (2-3 leaves), repeat it when there are 9-12 leaves on the vine.

The following grape varieties are resistant to phylloxera: Rkatsiteli, Mtsvane, Serexia, Greek pink, Muscat Bessarabian, Anniversary of Moldova, Amateur, Chocolate and etc.

These petty dirty tricks are the most dangerous! This fully applies to the family of mites that parasitize grapes. Most often in our gardens there is a grape spider mite, a grape felt mite and a grape leaf mite.

Grape Spider Mite - arachnid yellowish-green color, size 0.4-0.6 mm. The larvae hatch with the onset of heat (when the temperature stays above 15 ° C for several days). After 5-6 days, 80-150 young individuals begin to actively devour the leaves, and after another two or three weeks they are ready for reproduction. During the season, up to 12 generations of grape pruritus can appear - about 1,200 individuals!

It is difficult to notice ticks - they live on the underside of the leaf, piercing it and feeding on soft tissues. Damaged leaves are covered with a whitish-yellow bloom and light spots, which eventually dry out. As a result, the plant is almost completely killed.

Felt mite, or tick - frequent guest on our sites. The length of his body is only 0.2 mm, so it is very difficult to notice arachnid. Lives pest on the underside of the leaves, feeding on their juice. Subsequently, depressed spots appear on the leaves, covered with white fuzz, which soon become brown. Then they inflate like balls, and with constant itching, the leaves form a solid, hilly mass. The surface of the sheet becomes like a padded fabric.

Damaged leaves, shoots and tendrils of grapes are stunted and soon die. Infection occurs through planting material and the nearest plants.

Grape leaf mite completely microscopic - length of only 0.15 mm. Winter spends in the heat - feeding on the buds of the grapes and simultaneously damaging them. These buds give curves and weak shoots, which is mistaken for gardeners as the consequences of a frosty winter. The leaves shrivel, deform, it seems as if they were cut with a blade into strips. It seems that the plant is sick with a viral infection, but be aware that this minor dirty dog ​​is operating there.

Tick ​​control measures:

  1. Destroy weeds on the plot and seedlings affected by the pest.
  2. Before the swelling of the kidneys, treat the bushes with a 5% lime-sulfur solution (according to the instructions).
  3. As soon as you discover the first traces of the "activity" of mites, spray the leaves of the vine with acaricides (BI-58, Aktellik, Neoron, Omayt, etc.) at least 2-3 times with an interval of 7-10 days.
  4. During the growing season, spray the leaves with insecticides: 0.2% Fozalona or Karate, so that the tick will forget the path to the grapes for a long time.
  5. Burn the falling and dead leaves.

Tick ​​resistant varieties: Moldova, Strasensky (Consul), Pineapple, In memory of Negrul, Consul

"What a beautiful moth!" - we think, looking at the moth fluttering over the grapes. Grapes are attacked by three kinds of leafworms, and they are all a headache for gardeners.

Grape Moth - This is a small butterfly with a wingspan of 2-3 cm. The wing color is dark brown with a copper sheen and two oblique dark stripes. Caterpillars change color from gray to dark green and brown. They appear after hibernation in the period of swelling of the kidneys and eat them, and then pounce on everything: shoots, leaves, flowers and even berries. All that remains is a gnawed "skeleton." The natural enemy of the leaf-maker is sizzling heat.

Two-Year Cloth It is a 1.2-1.5 cm long butterfly. Its wings are light yellow with a trapezoid black-brown stripe. The caterpillar has a black head and body, the color of which changes from light green to deep red. First, the larvae eat the buds and ovaries, and then savor the berries. During the season, insatiable moths destroy up to 80% of the crop.

Thunderbolt. It can be identified by the wings of an olive-brown color and the variegated pattern on them. The wingspan of a butterfly is only 1-1.3 cm. The caterpillar is light green, very mobile and voracious. It feeds on everything: buds, flowers, ovaries, green (immature) berries. Along the way, the clusters are covered with a sticky web, thanks to which he finds himself. In the winter goes to the bark, cracks in the trellis and any perennial wood.

Measures to combat the leaflet:

  1. After 10-12 days after the beginning of the summer of butterflies (starting from the end of May until the end of September), treat the bushes with the preparations Konfidor, Arrivo, Decis, Inta-vir, Fastak, Fufanon.
  2. Regularly clean the vineyard from organic residues (old bark and leaves).
  3. Set pheromone traps KM-EK at the rate of 1 trap per 200 vines.
  4. As soon as flowering begins, spray the flowers with a 0.1% solution of Rovikurt or a 0.2% solution of Fozalona, ​​Decis or Tsimbush.
  5. If there is damage on the leaves, the final treatment is carried out not later than 30 days before harvesting with one of the following preparations: Ekamet, Tsimbush, Tokution, Sumicidin, Metafos, Fozalon.

Resistant to leafworm grades: Moldova, In memory of Negrul, December, Frumoasa Albe.

Just like the inhabitants of the Mediterranean, China, Central Asia and the Caucasus, you most likely also took this "beast" for a harmless, albeit large, night moth. The wingspan of his wings reaches 7-10 cm, they are gray with dirty white or brown spots and dark transverse lines with a marble shade. In our latitudes, the moth begins at the end of May and does not stop until the beginning of August.

The woodworm caterpillars do not disdain any wood: they attack an apple tree, a pear tree, a plum tree, and if they are very bad with food, they switch to old grapes. During the life of the larvae exude an unpleasant, sharp smell (hence the name). Pests gnaw moves, try not to get to the surface and at the same time completely eat out the core of the shoots. As a result, the weakened plant dies.

The woodcutter is detected visually, along inlets, the presence of excretions, flaking bark, and sometimes along the “march” of caterpillars along the ground, looking for a new tree.

Measures to deal with wood boring:

  1. Regularly inspect the vine. If you find round inlets on the shoots, cut the vine below the injury and burn the cut.
  2. The second method: drive the wire into the damaged areas of the bark, expand the hole and inject any insecticide there (Aktellik, Diazinon, Karbofos, Chlorophos, Chlorpyrifos). After that, cover the hole with raw clay.
  3. Make your yard attractive to birds (rooks, woodpeckers, tits and forty). To do this, install bird feeders and bird houses, organize drinking bowls with rainwater, feed small neighbors in the winter. When the need arises, grateful wood hole hunters will quickly clear your site of uninvited guests.

"Sibling" of the well-known May beetle, who is also not averse to eat delicate roots and grape leaves. The elytra of the brown crust with white spots, otherwise it is very similar to its fellow. Larvae up to 7 cm long hibernate deep in the ground, and in spring they rise to the upper layers of the soil in search of food. The larvae of the 2nd year are especially dangerous for the grapes - they begin to feed on the roots of the vine. Gnawing the roots, they destroy not only young but also old bushes.

White beetle larvae, elongated, up to 7-8 cm long. Their head is light red without eyes. Adult caterpillars can gnaw not only the roots of grapes, but also destroy the roots of other old trees. With a lack of moisture in the soil, the caterpillars only become more voracious. Beetles choose poor soil, which allows the larvae to cause maximum damage to the plantings.

Measures to combat the marble crust:

  1. Add granulated Basudin or Wolaton to the soil. Fill a vessel with 1 liter water by three quarters with dry sand and pour 30 g of the substance into it. The resulting solution to treat 20 square meters of soil.
  2. Dig the soil in spring and summer when the larvae are in the arable layer- beetles avoid laying eggs on loose soils.
  3. Sometimes beetles lay eggs directly in compost heaps. There they winter successfully and are taken to work in the spring. Therefore, before applying fertilizer spread plastic wrap and pour a pile on it. Hand over the compost manually and remove all detected larvae.
  4. Picker the soil with insecticides: Diazinon, Thunder-2, Basudin to a depth of 5-7 cm. Alternatively, water the soil with a solution of one of the following insecticides Aktar, Decis or Aktellik twice with an interval of 7 days. Watering after treatment spend no earlier than 5-7 days.

The pests that we have described cause the greatest damage to the grapes. This is not a complete list of insects and their friends who wish to feast on country grapes. Tell us in the comments, what pests do you have on the site and how do you fight them?

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