White cabbage grows in almost every summer cottage. If you are only planning to plant this vegetable in your home, or if you encounter a problem while growing it, our answers to the most important questions will help you!
Cabbage differs in cold resistance and high yield, and its taste will appeal to any gourmet. It is known since the days of ancient Greece, but, according to archaeological excavations, the first time they began to use vegetables in the Stone Age. Low-calorie cabbage, its juice has an anti-inflammatory effect, is effective in treating gastritis, stomach ulcers, reduces blood sugar levels and helps to remove excess fluid from the body. How to properly grow this storehouse of vitamins in the country? Talk about everything in order!
1. What is better - a variety or a hybrid of cabbage?
First, let's look at what are the varieties and hybrids. Sort - a group of plants, which for several years in the process of growing were selected according to certain characteristics. The seeds of such cultures during reproduction retain the characteristics of the mother plant. Hybrid - a plant bred by crossing several varieties in order to obtain special characteristics, such as rich taste, resistance to diseases, etc. Its main difference from the variety: the impossibility of obtaining plants with the same characteristics from seeds collected from mother plants, i.e. hybrids need to be re-purchased every year, and they usually cost more than high-quality plants.
Varietal cabbage unpretentious to the composition of the soil and is suitable for summer residents who are on the site only on weekends. But at the same time such plants are less resistant to diseases and often produce unstable yield.
Hybrids, in turn, produce a stable and beautiful crop, rarely get sick and are almost unaffected by pests. True, they require more watering, fertilizing, and the soil they need to be necessarily fertile.
As you can see, it is difficult to say which is better - a sort or a hybrid. It all depends on how you are going to grow cabbage, whether you have a lot of time, in what condition the soil on the site. If you make a difficult choice, focus on the ripening period. To immediately harvest, plant hybrids. They come together and mature. If you want to collect the cabbages gradually - plant varietal cabbage. Or you can land both that and the other in order to find the answer to the above question yourself.
2. What to look for when buying cabbage seeds?
The most important criterion when choosing a seed: cabbage ripening. So, there are early varieties with a maturity of 60-80 days, medium - 75-120 days and late varieties - 115-175 days from germination to harvest. All of them differ in the degree of yield and duration of storage. There are some differences in taste.
It is better to choose zoned varieties that are adapted for growing in the weather conditions of your region.
Carefully read the information on the packaging, information about the manufacturer and quality standards. If you buy seeds in the market, be sure to check the expiration date.
3. How to prepare cabbage seeds for sowing in order to obtain 100% germination?
Prepare the seeds for planting need immediately after purchase. To do this, store them properly: the air temperature should not exceed 5 ° C, and the humidity - 55-60%.
In order for all seeds to ascend, before sowing, they need to be disinfected and hardened. To do this, perform the following procedures:
- take the seeds out of the bag, put it on the gauze or wrap a piece of cloth;
- soak for 20 minutes in a jar or thermos with hot water (not higher than 50 ° C);
- dry the seeds, place on a plate, cover with a napkin and put in the refrigerator for 12 hours (preferably on the bottom shelf, in the coolest place).
Before hardening in the refrigerator, seeds can be soaked for 12-18 hours in mineral fertilizer (for example, 1 tsp. Nitrophoska per 1 liter of water) or in a solution of Appin or Zircon (4 drops per cup of water). This will accelerate germination and increase germination. To protect against black legs, seed treatment with Fundazole or another fungicide will help.
4. What is the best soil for cabbage seedlings?
In order for the seeds to sprout and the seedlings develop well, you need to prepare the ground. The soil from the garden will not work, because it may contain pests and pathogenic bacteria. Take in equal proportions soddy earth and sand, mix and pour boiling water. Then dry and sift to increase its breathability. To improve the properties of the finished substrate, add wood ash: 10 tbsp. on a bucket of soil.
Such a nutritious mixture is also suitable for cabbage seeds: for 10 liters of steamed peat, take 300-400 g of dolomite flour, 50 g of complex fertilizers and 1 cup of wood ash. Mix everything, place in a container and pour clean water.
5. When and how to sow cabbage for seedlings?
In central Russia, sowing cabbage on seedlings begins in mid-March. Every 4-5 days, a certain portion of seeds is sown to increase the harvest period. To select the exact date of sowing, you can focus on the ripening time:
- early varieties should be sown in the third decade of March, 45-50 days before transplanting to the ground;
- medium - until the end of the second decade of April, 35-45 days before disembarkation;
- late - until the end of the third decade of April, 30-35 days before landing in the ground.
Seeding boxes, plastic pots, peat tablets and other containers can be used for sowing seeds. If you are sowing cabbage seeds in a box, the distance between the grooves should be at least 3-4 cm. Seeds should be embedded in the soil to a depth of 1 cm, leaving about 2 cm between them.
Before sowing cabbage seeds, carefully water the soil and do not thicken the planting to avoid thinning of the seedlings.
Then spray the soil with a spray bottle so as not to accidentally wash the seeds with a stream of water, and cover the container with film or glass. How to take care of young seedlings, you will learn from our article.
- Growing cabbage seedlings at homeStep-by-step master-class of sowing seeds and diving white cabbage seedlings.
6. After which you can not plant cabbage?
When planting cabbage, it is important to observe crop rotation - one of the main factors of a rich harvest. For the cabbage to develop well, you should not plant it in the beds where cruciferous crops grew: mustard, rape, horseradish, radish, radish, turnip, rutabaga, turnip, etc. The fact is that they have similar pests and diseases, so the cabbage will feel bad at such a place. Planting after pumpkin is also unfavorable for culture.
Cabbage is best developed in the beds where cucumbers, onions, potatoes and tomatoes used to grow. Planting is also possible after beets, carrots, legumes and grain crops.
It is not recommended to grow cabbage on the same place for several years in a row, because the soil is depleted over time, and pest larvae and pathogenic bacteria accumulate in it, which will weaken new plants.
7. Next to what to plant cabbage to increase the yield?
Cabbage gets along well with almost all plants, but there are crops that will allow the head of cabbage to grow particularly strong.
One of the best neighbors for cabbage beds is celery, which protects the vegetable from the attack of the flea beetles. But, unfortunately, the plant simultaneously lures and cabbage butterflies. To solve this problem, dilute the planting with dill, rosemary, tansy, marigold, chamomile, which will scare away butterflies and aphids. Sage will protect the cabbage from the whitefly, and mint will help in the fight against ants.
To the cabbage root system developed well, plant leaf lettuce next to it. It will also protect planting from cruciferous flea. If the slugs annoy the heads, borage or borage grass comes to the rescue. Its hard leaves will not like pests, and they will leave attempts to climb on the cabbage. Also favorable for cabbage neighborhood of peas, cucumbers, tomatoes.
Bad "neighbors" for cabbage: carrots, radishes and turnips, because they attract pest butterflies and mining moths. If you put spinach next to cabbage, the latter will fight for moisture and will cause poor heading. White cabbage does not like neighborhood with other species of its own family. Therefore, cauliflower and broccoli planted in different beds, not less than 1 m from each other. The harvest of cabbage growing next to garden strawberries, grapes, parsley, beans, fennel will also be low.
- Mixed planting: choose the best neighbors for plantsWe understand which plants best used for common garden crops.
8. Cabbage bed - what should it be?
Cabbage grows well only in the lighted areas without shading. Therefore, place the beds on the brightest place where the sun will warm the soil for at least 12 hours a day. A few weeks before transplanting, dig up the ground for it to settle.
Avoid slopes and other inappropriate places where water may stagnate. Cabbage will grow well only on level ground. Before planting beds, mark out taking into account that the distance between seedlings should be at least 40 cm.
To avoid cabbage disease and to improve the composition of the soil, during the autumn digging, add lime or dolomite flour to the beds at the rate of 450-600 g per 1 sq.m.
- How much lime should be applied to the soil at the site?We tell how to properly lime the soil.
If you want to rationally use the area of the plot, try planting cabbage on high beds. A feature of these structures is the use of a variety of plant residues that create a favorable environment for the development of beneficial bacteria and the nourishment of heads.
In addition, on these beds it is easier to organize joint planting with plants useful for cabbage.
9. How to plant cabbage seedlings in the ground?
For each seedling, dig a small hole and add 2 tablespoons of it. wood ash, which will allow the plant to root well, 1 tsp Nitrofoski and 400 g of humus. All mix thoroughly and pour abundantly. Then, carefully remove the plant with an earthen clod from the pot and lower it into the hole. Sprinkle with dry earth and press lightly. If the sun bakes much, for the first time, spread the seedlings so that it can get stronger.
In seedlings with an open root system, it is recommended to dip the roots in a clay mash before planting.
As for the planting scheme, thickening is unacceptable for cabbage. The approximate distance between rows and plants, see our table.
|Type of cabbage||Distance between rows, cm||Distance between plants, cm|
|Early varieties and hybrids||30||40|
|Medium varieties and hybrids||50||60|
|Late varieties and hybrids||60||70|
10. How often do you need to water the cabbage?
The cabbage is moisture-loving, so watering is necessary frequent and abundant. Immediately after planting in an open ground, water the plants at the rate of 0.5 liters of water per bush. Then, within two weeks, do not allow the soil to dry out; approximately every 2-3 days, moisten the soil depending on the weather. On 1 square meter will leave about 8 liters of water. To preserve moisture on the bed you can stretch the plastic film.
After 2 weeks watering reduce. Now it is enough to water the cabbage once a week, increasing the amount of water to 12 liters per 1 square meter. But if the weather is dry, the frequency and volume of watering should be increased.
Early varieties of cabbage watering abundantly in June, and later - in August. This will allow the heads to form strong and juicy.
Cabbage, like almost all garden crops, does not like too cold water. The ideal temperature is at least 18 ° C. If it is hot outside, cabbage will respond well to irrigation (artificial irrigation). Watering spend the morning or evening. A few weeks before harvesting, stop watering completely, so that the excess moisture does not damage the heads of cabbages.
If moisture is not enough, a cabbage fly and a cruciferous flea begin to multiply on the cabbage.
11. What and when to feed the cabbage for high yield?
Without top dressing it will not be easy to harvest a rich harvest of cabbage, so be sure to use organic and mineral fertilizers. Depending on the stage of growth of the plant, the variety of cabbage and the state of the soil, they also choose top dressing. Approximate dates of root feeding and the necessary fertilizers we have collected in the table.
|Terms of root dressing cabbage||Fertilizers|
|7-10 days after picking||2 g of ammonium nitrate, 4 g of superphosphate and 2 g of potassium sulphate per 1 l of water or complex fertilizer according to the instructions (nitrophoska, Kemira-universal, etc.). To water under a root, previously having spilled the soil with clear water.|
|2 weeks after the first feeding||4 g of ammonium nitrate and potassium sulphate, 8 g of superphosphate per 1 l of water or complex mineral fertilizer (Mortar, nitrophoska, etc.).|
|5-7 days before landing in the ground||3 g of ammonium nitrate, 5 g of superphosphate and 8 g of potassium sulfate per 1 l of water. Potash fertilizer requires more to seedlings to settle down faster.|
|2 weeks after landing in the ground||10 g of urea and potassium sulfate, 20 g of superphosphate to 10 liters of water.|
|One month after landing in the ground||On 1 sq. M - 5 l of infusion of mullein or 0.3 kg of bird droppings diluted with water in a ratio of 1:20|
|40 days after landing in the ground||30-35 g of superphosphate and 40 g of urea per 1 sq. M.|
Once the head has been formed, it is better not to abuse mineral fertilizers. The fact is that cabbage easily accumulates nitrates, and the harvest may not turn out as healthy as you planned.
To make the head grow big and strong, try spraying boric acid. To do this, dissolve 1 tsp. acid in 1 liter of hot water and add up to 10 l. Spray the planting in cloudy weather and soon you will be surprised how actively the cabbage grows.
12. How to protect the cabbage from slugs?
Slugs adore cabbage and are able to turn already strong cabbages into eaten remains. These pests are incredibly voracious, so the first thing you should do is prevent their appearance.
In order for the slugs not to climb onto the cabbages, sprinkle the soil on the beds with ashes, pine needles, eggshell or nettle. If pests have already appeared on the leaves, you can collect them manually or prepare a mixture of wood ash and tobacco dust (1: 1) and powder the leaves of the plants from both sides.
Will help in the fight against slippery pests and ammonia. Dilute 10 ml in a bucket of water and spray the cabbage. For the best effect, add a half bar of laundry soap.
Well proven and bait traps. Simply fill small containers with beer, compote, syrup, or coffee and dig in near the beds. Slugs will try the treat and will soon die, because these drinks are not absorbed by the body of mollusks.
To slugs bypassing the side of the garden, plant cabbage laurel, borage, rosemary or lavender. Pests do not like these plants and will not disturb heads.
- Folk remedies for cabbage pests - how to treat plantsFighting cabbage pests in the open field can be delayed for the entire season and affect the crop. To prevent this from happening, we will talk about the treatment of cabbage from pests by folk remedies: vinegar, ammonia, valerian and herbs.
13. When do they harvest the cabbage?
To collect the cabbage harvest, choose a dry and cool day. Early cabbage varieties can be harvested from the end of June. Depending on the weather, the collection sometimes continues until early August. Heads go immediately to the food, so do not let them stale. Average cabbage varieties ripen by August. The last cabbies are cleaned in September.
A head of ripe cabbage is elastic and firm. Also pay attention to the lower leaves: if they began to turn yellow, it means that the plant is no longer growing, and it is time to harvest so that the cabbages do not begin to crack.
Late cabbage is intended for winter storage, so you need to collect it before the first frost. You can start in mid-September, and by the beginning of November all the beds should be clean. To keep the cobs longer, cut them with a sharp knife and be sure to leave a long stalk and a pair of loose leaves - they will protect the cabbage from damage.
- How to keep fresh cabbage until springWe tell how to store cabbage in the winter in the cellar and the apartment, so that the cabbages remain fresh until spring.
Cabbage - quite unpretentious culture that brings great benefits to health. So plant it in your beds, and our tips will help you get a great harvest!
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