Many plants tolerate cuttings well and propagate by cuttings. But there are a few subtleties in this matter. To get a good result, you need time to cut and properly store the material for grafting and rooting.
Cuttings for breeding horticultural crops can be harvested at almost any time of the year. However, if you cut them in the summer, then there is no point in storage - you can immediately vaccinate or begin to root the cuttings. But what to do if you managed to get the desired material only in the cold season? Do not worry, save the cuttings until spring is quite realistic.
When you need to harvest cuttings
Cuttings for vaccination can be harvested three times a year:
- in the fall (after the fall of the leaves is over and stable colds are established) they prepare cuttings for grafting cherries, plums, apricots and other stone fruits;
- in winter (at the end of February - March), cuttings of apple, pear and other pome crops are harvested;
- In the summer (at any time), green cuttings are harvested for rooting, grafting and breeding of bushes and trees that are not stored, but used in the coming days.
Cuttings in the winter can only be cut after frost has passed, because at temperatures below -10 ° C the wood becomes brittle, and the uterine plant can be injured.
Flight harvesting cuttings for rooting
Most berry bushes reproduce perfectly by rooting cuttings, so if you see someone familiar, a curious variety, you do not need to look for the same in the store - just ask for a sprig and work a little over it.
Actinidia grafts immediately after flowering (end of May - beginning of June), cutting the twigs from the top of the shoot so that each has 2-3 buds. Cuttings are planted in the substrate under the shelter, which is removed not earlier than mid-August. After wintering the plant can be planted in a permanent place.
Grapes cuttings for reproduction during the autumn pruning (September-October), cutting the cuttings from the middle part of the vines that have been bred. Cuttings with 3–4 developed buds are stored for the whole winter, at the end of February they are put in water for awakening, and then they are planted in the substrate.
Blueberry can be propagated by lignified and semi-lignified cuttings. In the first case, they are harvested at the end of winter - early spring, and from April they are germinated in a greenhouse in a special soil, after having dipped the lower sections into powder for rooting. In the second case, the cuttings are harvested at the end of June - July and rooted immediately.
Gooseberry grafts in the first half of July, when the growth of the bush slows down. Twigs are cut to a length of 20 cm (with 8-10 internodes) and immersed in Heteroauxin for 8 hours. Then they are rooted in a light substrate under shelter, deepening by 2 cm. The gooseberry is also well cutted by semi-woody (combined) shoots, but it is senseless to harvest its cuttings in a state of rest - they will not take root.
Currant can also be propagated by both green and lignified cuttings. In the first case, you need a greenhouse, and in the second you can do without it. Lignified cuttings of currants harvested in February and March. Their length should be about 15-20 cm, and the thickness of not less than 6 mm. After 12 hours, the cuttings are rooted in the Heteroauxin or Kornevine in nutrient soil, mulched and left - it is possible to plant in April or September.
Rooting of lignified cuttings
If you decide to root green cuttings, harvest them when the length of the annual gain is 10-12 cm. Soak the root formation in the stimulator for 12 hours and plant it in a greenhouse or greenhouse, and then spray the plantings 3-4 times a day and keep the temperature in the shelter below 25 ° C during the day and 16 ° C at night.
How to store cuttings
Each experienced gardener organizes storage of cuttings in his own way, however, there are general rules that must be followed to obtain a good result.
Procurement of cuttings for storage
First you need to know how to harvest cuttings:
- the length of the cutting should be 30-40 cm, and diameter - about 7 mm;
- cuttings for grafting fruit trees should be cut from annual shoots growing on the south side of the tree in the center of the crown;
- uterine plant must be an adult (from 3 to 10 years), healthy and bear fruit well;
- harvesting cuttings is carried out with a sharp pruner or a knife, and the cut points are not touched by hands so as not to cause an infection;
- when harvesting cuttings in spring, you need to make sure that the branch does not freeze, avoid thin, crooked shoots and tops.
Remember, when harvesting cuttings in autumn or in winter until the time of rooting and vaccinations, not all of them will survive, therefore, harvest a third more than the required amount.
Preparation of cuttings for storage is simple and consists of binding and labeling. Collect cuttings from one plant in a bundle, tie them with a string and attach a tag to the rope with the name of the variety or type of mother plant - this will allow you not to confuse the material for grafting and planting in the spring.
Storage methods for cuttings
What tricks did not come up with gardeners to save harvested stem cuttings until the new season. Someone puts them in the fridge, someone digs them in the garden, but we will tell only about those methods that allow you to save the bulk of the harvested material before vaccination and reproduction.
Storage of cuttings in the snow collar
If you do not plan to check the cuttings during the entire cold season, then storage in the snow collar is the best option. To create a vault, dig a hole 30–35 cm deep in an elevated shaded area. Lay a thick (5-7 cm) layer of lapnik at its bottom, place the cuttings on top and cover it with lapniknik. After that, fill the pit with earth, and with the advent of snow, cover it with a layer of up to 50 cm.
Storage of cuttings in sawdust
In the western and south-western regions of Russia with frequent thaws, frozen sawdust will be the best shelter. Pour a layer of wet sawdust or shavings 10-15 cm thick on the north side of the plot, lay the cuttings, cover everything from above with the same layer of sawdust, and pour 30-40 cm dry sawdust on top. All this, close the plastic and leave for the winter.
To prevent rodents from encroaching on your cuttings, soak sawdust not with water, but with a solution of carbolic acid (50 g per 10 l of water).
Storage of cuttings in the barrel
If you have a bulk fuel barrel and a shadowy non-heated plot in the country house, then you can organize a stationary storage for cuttings with an easy system for checking their condition. To do this, bury the barrel in the ground, pre-drilled in its bottom a few holes. At the bottom of the barrel lay 10-15 bottles of frozen water, on top - open bags with cuttings. Close the barrel "cork" of sawdust or shavings, wrapped in a spunbond, and on top of the lid. Periodically (once every 2-3 weeks), check the cuttings and update the bottles with melted water.
Storage of cuttings in the cellar
If you have a cellar or cellar in which the temperature during the whole winter is from 0 to 1 ° C, and the humidity is within 65-70%, then cuttings can be stored there. Put them in slices down in a box with wet sand or sawdust, and periodically spray, not allowing the substrate to dry.
Why spoil cuttings
Even with the observance of all conceivable and inconceivable rules, many gardeners cannot understand why cuttings that have been cut for storage rot. The most common cause of this is moisture ingress or too long storage, but there may be other options.
The cuttings froze
This can be determined by their "glossy" appearance and wateriness. In addition, if you put these cuttings in the water, it quickly dims.
The cuttings sprouted
At temperatures above 5 ° C, the cuttings start growing. If the kidneys have leaked, then the rest period is complete, and there is no point in storing the material further.
The cuttings went out
High humidity and positive temperatures can also cause cuttings to rot. Having risen in growth, they become easy prey for fungi and viruses.
The cuttings withered
If the cuttings crunch when bent and break easily, it means that they did not have enough moisture in the shelter and they died.
The appearance of mold contributes to the stagnation of condensate in the storage. To prevent this, moisture should be regularly removed. If the mold has already appeared, it is urgent to wipe the cuttings, dip them in an aqueous solution of 1% iodine or in a 3% solution of copper sulphate, and then place them in a new clean container for further storage.
Almost all these types of damage suggest that the material is no longer suitable for further reproduction - cuttings will have to be thrown away.
What plants are well propagated by cuttings
Not all cultures in the garden can be propagated by cuttings, but there should be no problems with these plants.
|Plant name||The time of harvesting cuttings||Start rooting cuttings|
|Privet||June||Immediately after harvesting|
|Buddleya||After flowering||Immediately after harvesting|
|Elder||The end of June - the beginning of July||Immediately after harvesting|
|Weigela||April May||Immediately after harvesting|
|Grapes||During the autumn pruning||The end of February - March|
|Hydrangea||From the end of May to the end of July||Immediately after harvesting|
|Girlish grapes||May to July||Immediately after harvesting|
|Deytion||October November||April May|
|Honeysuckle||In the period of the appearance of berries||Immediately after harvesting|
|Cotoneaster||Second half of july||Immediately after harvesting|
|Clematis||The end of May - the beginning of June||Immediately after harvesting|
|Bloodroot||The end of June - the end of July||Immediately after harvesting|
|Roses (ground cover, climbing, polyanthus, less commonly floribunda)||The end of June - the beginning of July||Immediately after harvesting|
|Boxwood||July to March||Immediately after harvesting|
|Currants (black and red)||November to March||Once thawed soil|
|Spirea||September October||Immediately after harvesting|
|Thuja||October||Immediately after harvesting|
|Forsythia||November to February||April|
|Chubushnik||In summer or autumn||Immediately after harvesting or in April|
Never tried to propagate plants by cuttings? Take the risk and you will like it, because it doesn’t require much work, and it helps to save money on saplings.