Grafting is a common and affordable way to grow grapes at home. In this article we will talk about the most popular technique of growing grapes saplings from cuttings.
The grapes are well propagated by cuttings, as they are capable of forming roots on green and lignified shoots, from which planting cuttings (chubuk) are harvested. In the spring of them you can grow a young seedling of grapes.
Harvesting cuttings of grapes
Cuttings of grapes harvested in the fall, during trimming of bushes. At the same time, well-developed and mature shoots with a diameter of 6 to 10 mm are selected. Thicker should not be taken - it is fattening shoots, which are unlikely to take root.
Thicker branches of the grapes are not worth taking - they are fattening shoots that are unlikely to take root
Signs of quality cuttings:
- thickness not less than 6 mm;
- hard, crackling when bent;
- bark light or dark brown (it should not be any gray-brown or dark brown spots);
- vine on the cut green (brown indicates the freezing of the shoot);
- no mechanical damage.
Cuttings cut into a length of 30-40 cm (they should be from 2 to 4 eyes).
When harvesting cuttings of different varieties do not forget to sign them.
Storage cuttings of grapes
Cut grapes cuttings cleaned from stepsons, leaves, whiskers, folded in bunches and tied with soft wire or rope. Harvested chubukov stored in the basement (in wet sand) or in a specially dug in the garden trench 50 cm deep and the length equal to the length of the cuttings.
A trench is dug on an elevated place away from the groundwater. Grainy sand is poured at the bottom with a layer of 10 cm. Then the cuttings are laid horizontally and a layer of soil about 40 cm thick is poured up.
In both cases, the temperature of the air in the storage area of the cuttings should not exceed 4 ° C.
Cuttings can be stored at home on the refrigerator door. Only they need to pre-soak for 1-2 days in water and put in a small plastic bag.
Water should be at room temperature.
Preparation of grapes for planting
In late January - early February, grape cuttings are taken from storage, washed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and placed in room temperature water for 1-2 days. After that, the cuttings of the cuttings are refreshed with a disinfected sharp knife, until the wood becomes light green. On each handle leave 2 upper eyes, the others are removed. And in the lower part of the pipe a double-sided furrow is made with a knife. After that, sections and grooves are smeared with Kornevin.
Furrow cuttings of grapes - agropriem, which aims to stimulate the processes of rooting. Carry it out like this: small longitudinal cuts of the bark in the lower part of the cuttings are made with an iron comb, a nail file or the sharp end of a knife. In these places, wound tissue appears, which accelerates the process of formation and development of adventitious roots.
After which the cuttings are subjected kilchevania (This is a technique in which the lower parts of the cuttings are kept warm and the upper parts are cold). To do this, the cuttings are placed in plastic bags, glass or plastic jars filled with wet sawdust, and placed on a heating radiator.
During kilching, periodically moisten sawdust and often open the vent window so that the upper buds on the cuttings do not wake up ahead of time
After 17–20 days, callus is formed at the lower ends of the cuttings (an influx of gray-white) with dotted tubercles (root buds) or already with roots 2–7 cm long.
This is how grape chubuk look like, ready to be planted in the ground.
Planting grapes cuttings
After the roots are formed, the grapes are carefully planted in cardboard or plastic cups 20-25 cm high and 8-10 cm in diameter. To do this, pour the soil mixture into the container with a layer of 4-5 cm, slightly thicken it, put the cutting in there, cover it with nutrient soil and pour it over .
Water for irrigation cuttings of grapes should be warm, but not hot
Soil mixture for grape cubs is best prepared from 1 part of sod or forest fertile soil, 1 part of peat and 1 part of coarse sand (with particles from millet to pea in size). A mixture of 1 part of fertile structural soil, 1 part of coarse sand and 1 part of sifted sawdust is also quite effective.
Nutrients are not enough in the cutting with one peephole; therefore, it is placed in a small container with fertile and moist soil, covered with polyethylene and placed in a warm, well-lit place.
Cups with cuttings are left in a room with a temperature of 22-25 ° C near the southern windows. As the soil dries out (about once a week), the plants are watered with warm water, and when 3-4 leaves appear, they are fed with complex fertilizer with microelements: it is dissolved in water (according to the instructions) and watered at the rate of 1 tbsp. on each container.
You can use the biostimulator Humisol to feed grape cuttings
On a single plant grown from cuttings, 1-2 shoots are left. And the rest - are removed as they appear. Grown seedlings are planted in a permanent place in late May - early June. 5-7 days before disembarking, they are hardened.
Grapes saplings obtained from cuttings begin to produce crops in the third year, and with very skillful care even in the second.