Sooner or later, every gardener is faced with such a misfortune as a phytophtora, so I advise everyone to read this post, even though I warn you - there will be a lot of letters!
Late blight - a fungal disease of plants, most often affects solanaceous crops. Other cultures suffer from it, but now we are talking about tomatoes. Many gardeners engage in an unequal battle with this contagion and for some reason often lose, although they have advantages over the malicious disease! Why does it come out, I will tell you now.
What I learned about the phytophtor
I, like many gardeners, twice lost the crop and realized that I didn’t want to put up with this situation anymore! And she began to look for information. Hallelujah to the internet! I spent a lot of time searching and analyzing information and now I am ready to share with you all that I found, analyzed and tested in combat conditions.
Phytophthora fungus lives in the soil, and is not brought with the wind or fog. The development of spores of the fungus provoke sharp fluctuations in temperature, and also this is facilitated by increased humidity. At the moment when the air temperature rises, the moisture evaporates from the soil surface, and the spores of the fungus, together with the vapors, rise up and fall on the leaves of the tomatoes. Well, let's assume that now everyone has met: I beg to love and favor - Phytophtora.
For those who are not yet in the know: this is the tomato bushes affected by blight;
As in medicine, in our case it is better to prevent the disease, because the treatment does not always give the result we want! I propose to make a bet on prevention. In the beginning I spoke about the advantages of the gardener over the blight, now I will explain what I meant. Phytophthora have only one development option - in the presence of heat and humidity get on the leaves of plants. The gardener has plenty of ways to prevent this! All the methods I know I gathered in a whole complex of measures to prevent phytophtoras.
Since we know that the phytophtora lives in the ground, then we begin to smash the enemy from the rear! The first thing I want to recommend is to treat the greenhouse with a sulfur checker, and as soon as the air temperature in the greenhouse reaches positive values, sow the green manure. They play a very important role, which I will discuss a little later. Next, find out where the moisture comes from, while we have already stopped watering. And it is taken from the condensate that drips over our greenhouse! The thin covering material fixed under the greenhouse ceiling helps to cope with this. And he also scatters the sun in the sun. Thus, we create a more or less favorable microclimate in the greenhouse.
Back to earth
Before planting the seedlings, we treat the earth with Fitosporin's solution, cover it with a film and wait a week (remember that there are already siderats sitting there). In the heat, bacteria are activated and begin their wellness activities. Seedlings can be planted in growing siderats (I did), or they can be pruned, slightly buried in the ground (do not dig!) And shed by Baikal or any EM preparation (this condition is mandatory in any case!). Then again, you need to cover the film for 10 more days. Now you can plant your beloved tomato crumbs!
During the growing season I see the need for treatment with Fitosporin every two weeks
Next on mulch and pruning lower leaves.
Mulching not only helps retain moisture and curb weed growth. A thick layer of mulch also prevents the migration of spores of phytophthora from the ground to the leaves of our tomatoes. Mulch anything - mowed grass, cardboard, sawdust, more importantly! In many sources, it is recommended to mulch with non-seeded grass, but since we will need a lot of mulch, we will probably also have to mow the grass more than once. But I just want to say right away that we should not be afraid of weed seeds - they simply cannot break through a thick layer of mulch!
Also a couple of words about sawdust: it is recommended to use rotted, but if only fresh ones are available, use them, just spill them with a solution of herbal infusion, as decomposition of fresh sawdust requires a large amount of nitrogen. In the new season I will do just that, because we have much less grass than sawdust, and I intend to put it on the infusion.
For the northern regions is also required pruning the lower leaves. This is necessary for airing the stems and moving the leaves away from the ground, which will complicate the transfer of the phytophtora spores. Leaves should be removed gradually, no more than two at a time. Thus, we act from the moment of setting the first fruit cluster. We look: the brush began to form completely and the fruits began to fill in - that means we cut the leaves, the next brush began to cut - again we cut. I generally keep silence about compulsory pasynkovanie in order to prevent planting thickened landings - they all know this anyway.
We also remember that the leaves feed the fruit, so we do everything deliberately.
Now about sideratah
I think everyone knows the benefits of sideratov. But even here there are some subtleties that not everyone knows about. All green manure plants are beautiful! Since I advise you to sow them twice per season, in the spring it is better to sow phacelia - it is excellent in growing green mass, which, if you plant seedlings directly in growing greens, protects tomatoes from returning frosts, and pruned in the future will be an excellent top dressing. White mustard and oil radish should not be sown in spring solely because of the attraction of the cruciferous flea. But in the fall, these cultures play an invaluable role! The root system of these plants produces phytoncides that bind iron, thus making it inaccessible to phytophthora spores.
By the way, lovers of "dolomite" on the note! Studies have shown that spores of phytophtoras most often "aktivnichayut" precisely on deoxidized soils. But siderata just regulate acidity. Someone advises sowing these plants after harvesting the bushes of tomatoes, and I, given the harsh Baltic climate, mustard must be sown directly into the “feet” of the bushes - slightly spreading the mulch and sowing mustard seeds, as soon as it germinates, it connects to the protection of tomatoes, while while my crop is ripening.
As I was harvesting, I also sowed mustard, and my unheated greenhouse went into the winter under a fluffy green blanket!
I do not have a drip irrigation system due to the lack of the need for these same irrigations - my site is near the lake and with a fairly high groundwater level, so I water my tomatoes only when planting seedlings, and maybe one more time if it is hot ( last season this happened only once!).
As for the processing of copper-containing drugs - I do not use them in principle. I read a lot about their effectiveness, but I consider them very environmentally unfriendly. This is my informed choice! I also include here the punctures of the stems with copper wire.
Too many dances with tambourines?
Perhaps someone will say: "PF ... too many dances with tambourines!" But it is a lot of letters, and the actions are simple and not labor-consuming! But the result is worthy! I felt such a buzz, cutting down healthy bushes from the trees! I realized that plants, like humans, can only be healed with a set of measures. After all, we, if we picked up the ORZ, will also stand up to our feet much faster, if we drink warm tea, we wash the throat, and we’ll float our legs and dress them with warm socks. And if we also ventilate the room, we won't infect our loved ones either!
I hope my experience and advice will help someone to cope with the malicious phytophtora. Maybe someone has his effective recommendations - please share in the comments!
Py Sy. This treatise was intended for those who already live on the plots of the phytophtora. Methods of dealing with it are described for greenhouse conditions. And to those lucky ones whom this infection has not disturbed, I want to say this: great happiness to grow adorable tomatoes on a healthy land! But be careful, especially if you buy ready-made seedlings, and do not grow yourself.
I wish you health, dear friends, and your plants! Good luck to all!Source: Amateur Tomato Club