Permanent agriculture has become a reaction to traditional and outdated methods of dealing with land and plants. It denies the need for plowing, the use of pesticides and the reworking of the environment for their needs.
Permaculture is a new system of farming, which is the minimum expenditure of time and resources and update the environment. On the territory of the former USSR, the most popular Holzer permaculture. The basic ideas of permaculture are careful use of the natural landscape, the integration of all existing plants, reservoirs, buildings and relief features into a single system and its functioning with minimal human intervention. Following these ideas allowed us to formulate the basic principles of permaculture.
This is the key to understanding permaculture ideas. In a world where everything changes too quickly and unpredictably, nature remains the only island of harmony. Observation of changes in the season and weather conditions, the formation of a microclimate at the site, wind direction and light intensity allows you to make wise and informed decisions regarding the site and growing plants on it.
Design based on permaculture involves embedding elements into an existing landscape.
2. Energy generation and storage
The second important principle of permaculture is “strike while the iron is hot.” It involves minimizing the need for external resources. With regard to the garden, this can be seen when growing seedlings indoors prior to the arrival of heat and installing a reflective greenhouse on the south side of the house. Its heating at the same time heats the house at no cost. In general, water, wind, sunlight, heat, soil and biomass should be rationally used to grow plants.
Houses with roof-mounted solar panels are a sign of eco-oriented farming
- Vegetable garden - life under the same roof with plantsThe dream of all "hippies" and lovers of unity with nature is living under the same roof with plants. In Spain, eco-friendly housing has been designed.
Crop, which is eaten, should be up to 1/3 of the grown crops. This is true for a small plot of land, and for the garden on the windowsill. Permaculture garden is an “edible landscape” growing in a floral frame to attract pollinating insects. And the buildings are used to generate solar energy and heat accumulation.
Important for permaculture is to combine plantations into a single system.
4. Use of renewable resources
The use of secondary and renewable resources prevails in permaculture. These include the construction of environmentally friendly materials, measures to improve soil fertility, crop rotation, planting unpretentious plants and the use of their seeds for subsequent planting, etc. Non-renewable energy sources are used as a last resort and in minimal amounts.
Buildings on the site organically fit into the overall landscape
The average family in the UK produces up to 14 kg of garbage per week. The total amount of waste discharged reaches 29 million tons per year. Of these, 55% are private households. Therefore, supporters of permaculture believe that all waste that can be reused (grass, branches, paper, cardboard, textiles, kitchen clean-ups, leftover food and even glass) should be recycled first. And you only need to throw out the complicated household and non-recoverable equipment.
Minimizing waste and recycling is an important principle of permaculture.
6. Template-to-Detail Design
The basis of permaculture is eco-style in the design of buildings and gardens. In any case, when creating it, haste is inadmissible - it is better to observe the condition of the site a little longer and evaluate its capabilities. For example, some enthusiasts watch the newly acquired site during the season, analyze the condition and acidity of the soil, determine the level of groundwater, and also study the possibilities for upgrading this area. Only after receiving an idea of the overall picture begins the creation of individual elements of landscape design.
Forest landscape allows you to grow more crops with minimal care
Strict division of the site into separate zones and the construction of clear boundaries between them contradicts the principles of permaculture. On standard plots, the garden is usually separated from the flower garden, and the orchard with greenhouses is completely out of the way. However, the more symbiotic bonds formed between plants on the site, the better. A orchard or vegetable garden can coexist with wild meadow flowers, attracting insect pollinators.
Japanese gardens are most consistent with the principles of permaculture
Biodiversity forms a healthy ecosystem. The diversity of crops, the use of different sources of renewable energy creates greater environmental sustainability. Experiment with different varieties, plant bright and unusual crops.
In permaculture, preference is given to combinations of different plants.
9. React creatively to change
In nature, there is constant continuity. Empty plots of land occupy weeds, after they sprout the seeds of trees - birch, alder and gorse, stabilizing the composition of the soil. Then moss is formed, oaks and pines grow up, and gradually the once empty area turns into a rich ecosystem. Something similar happens with the untidy site - it loses its former charm, and a completely different ecosystem forms in its place. And this is not always bad, you just need to perceive any changes with understanding and adjust to them.
Any changes on the site to benefit
10. Use hand tools and organic
To work in a small area, use a hand tool instead of lawn mowers, chainsaws, motoblocks, etc. Grow plants with fungicidal and bacterial properties, as well as in compacted and mixed plantings, rationally using each weave of land. Also preferred is the use of organic mulch and growing plants in areas without deep tillage.
Hand tools are no less effective than sophisticated equipment.
Permaculture is sometimes called the “future movement”. The elusive synthesis of modern technologies and traditional methods of management should increase the productivity of any land plots and at the same time have a minimal impact on the environment.
According to the site www.gaiasguardians.info