Usually for this purpose, the seeds are soaked, hardened and pickled. Learn how to do it right before the new holiday season.
Seeds need preplant preparation. Without it, they will rise badly and unfriendly. Therefore, they need to be calibrated, check their quality, harden and sanitize.
What to do if the seeds are very small
It is difficult to evenly distribute the seeds when sown, if they are small, such as, for example, carrots, turnips, parsley, dill, sorrel. But there is a technique that will facilitate this task.
Cut tapes of arbitrary length and 1-3 cm wide from toilet or newsprint. Stick the seeds on them using flour (or starch) paste (1 tbsp per 100 ml of warm water), placing them 2-3 pieces at a distance 3-5 cm. Seeds can be picked up with tweezers or a match dipped in water.
After the paste dries, roll up the strips so it is convenient to store and transport them. When sowing, place the strip in a 1-2 cm deep groove that was previously spilled with water.
Carrot seeds sprout for a very long time (up to three weeks) and need pretreatment before planting.
What is calibration?
Seeds suitable for sowing must be fully weighed. To determine this, place them in a glass of water and mix. Remove the spilled seeds. Then add sugar (2 tsp per 200 ml of liquid) to this liquid, stir and reject the seeds that appeared on the surface. Rinse, dry and leave remaining for sowing.
How to check the quality of the seeds?
To check the germination of a small amount of seeds spread on folded in several layers of filter paper (napkin) or gauze, put on the bottom of the plate, cover with a damp cloth and then glass. Make sure the fabric does not dry out. The most valuable and high-quality seeds are those that will germinate in the first days.
Overall germination is determined by counting the number of seeds that germinated after a certain period. For radishes, turnips, cucumbers, zucchini, cabbage, carrots, lettuce, beets, pumpkins, tomatoes, this period is 7-10 days. For onions, parsley and dill - 12-14 days.
To check for germination need a temperature of at least 25 ° C and humidity of about 70-80%
Drazhirovanie - is the enrichment of seeds with nutrients. The coated seeds sprout in a friendly manner, in the early stages of development they are better supplied with nutrients, as a result of which the yield is increased.
Drazhirovanie allows you to bring the seeds to the standard, then they will rise simultaneously
At home, drazhirovanie carried out as follows. 40 ml of manganese sulphate, 10 mg of copper sulfate, 40 mg of boric acid, 300 mg of ammonium molybdate and 200 mg of zinc sulphate . Seeds slightly moisturize, mix (they should not stick together). Then put them in a glass jar and add a little dry cooked mixture. The jar is repeatedly shaken so that the seeds, enveloped in a mixture, take the form of balls (dragees). The procedure is repeated several times.
First, soak the seeds in water (the air temperature in the room should be 20-25 ° C) until it swells completely. Then put them in the refrigerator for three days, you can wrap in a damp cloth.
Hardened seeds sown in open ground a few days earlier than usual. They are not afraid of short-term lowering of air temperature. This also applies to seedlings grown from such seeds. Seed hardening with variable temperatures for a long time is possible. However, it gives the same results as the previous method.
Hardened seeds will easily tolerate temperature drops
Disinfection is an important and first stage of protecting the future crop from diseases and pests. There are several options for disinfecting seeds.
This is a simple and reliable method of disinfecting seeds of cabbage, tomato, eggplant and Physalis. Seeds in gauze bags are first placed in a thermos with hot water (48-50 ° C) for 25 minutes, and then immediately in a glass of cold water for 2-3 minutes.
Etching in potassium permanganate solution
The solution of potassium permanganate has a fairly wide spectrum of action. To prepare a disinfecting solution, dissolve 1 g of potassium permanganate in 100 ml of warm water. Remember that a reduced concentration will not have the desired effect. And if you suspect that the seeds may be infected, double the amount of potassium permanganate.
Dip the seeds in gauze bags into the solution, then rinse with running water.
Consider: stuck together seeds are decontaminated badly. Especially prone to sticking tomato seeds
Seeds of tomato, onion, celery, lettuce, radish, beans, peas, beans should be kept in the solution for 30-40 minutes. Seeds of eggplant, pepper, cabbage, carrots, pumpkin crops, dill - 20 minutes.
In specialized stores sold modern drugs - growth stimulantsthat increase the immunity of plants and their resistance to diseases. But they should be used only for those crops and in such doses that are indicated in the attached instructions.
- We understand the stimulants and plant growth regulatorsDo you know how stimulants and plant growth regulators work?
- We test different growth promoters for plantsThe experiment of our editorial board: which of the 10 popular growth stimulants better than others increase seed germination?
How to prepare for planting seeds of plants of different varieties and not get confused
If you have several seeds of plants of different varieties (about 10), then it is not necessary to make separate gauze bags for them to thoroughly pickle. This process is too laborious, since it is necessary either to lower each bag into the disinfecting solution separately, or to sign the names of all varieties. To save time and effort, we recommend making a "tube" of gauze or bandage for seeds.
Cut a piece of material with a width of 10 cm and a length of 20-30 cm. Seeds of 10-13 varieties will fit on this segment. Cut a few strings of 10 cm in length. One of them should be thick (wool suitable), with it you will tie the edge of the "tube", from which you will begin to number the varieties.
On the table spread out the pieces of thread so that the first (left) was a thick thread, and the rest - at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. Place a bandage (gauze) on the thread, folding it in width by about a third.
Write a list of varieties of seeds on a sheet of paper in the order in which you plan to put them in a gauze tube. After that, strictly according to this list, put on the bandage (gauze) seeds in each "cell" formed by the threads.
Tie up the bandage so that the seeds are inside the "tubule" and tie the threads. So, the seeds of each variety will be in a separate "cell".
Pour raspberry solution of potassium permanganate into a small container or a deep plate and put the “tube” of seeds in it. After 20-25 minutes, wash it in warm running water.
If you want to germinate seeds before sowing, in the same "tube" put them on a plate or plastic lid, spray it with warm water and put the container in a plastic bag.
Put in a warm place (for example, on the battery), daily check the bandage and, if necessary, moisten it. When the seeds are covered, sow them in the ground and, referring to the list, sign the names of the varieties.
Follow these simple guidelines - and this season you will be able to harvest a rich harvest of your favorite crops!