Regulators of growth and development: how not to get lost in the variety of drugs

The desire to get a good harvest pushes summer residents to buy stimulants for garden crops. But ignorance of the nuances of using drugs often leads to unintended consequences.

In nature, plant development processes are thought out and balanced. But man has a desire to control and improve everything. Therefore, it is not surprising that, in the stores, gardeners offer a variety of drugs that can accelerate the growth of crops, make them bloom abundantly, develop a powerful root system, or produce large fruits.

But not enough to go to the store and buy a bag with a miracle cure. In order for the magic in your garden to happen, it is important to understand exactly how regulators work, what kinds of regulators there are and how to use them correctly. To buy an inappropriate drug - in most cases means ruining the culture. So let's understand this important topic.

General information and classification of growth and development regulators

Growth and development regulators are a group of drugs with the help of which a person manages to change the natural process of crop development, improve their adaptation to new growing conditions, help withstand stress, increase yield. They are used for processing planting material, leaf and root feeding, spraying ovaries and fruits, etc. May be in the form of aqueous solutions, aerosols, pastes, emulsions.

The chemical formula of growth regulators is based on phytohormones, as well as secondary growth substances (for example, amino acids, alkaloids, carboxylic acids, lactones, lipids, terpenoids, flavonoids). Preparations are actively used in agriculture. Thanks to them, you can:

  • increase crop yields, improve the quality of fruits and their presentation, extend shelf life;
  • slow the germination of tubers and roots during prolonged storage;
  • achieve crop resistance to adverse factors, diseases and pests;
  • eliminate the frequency of fruiting;
  • improve the appearance of ornamental plants;
  • speed up or slow down flowering, fruit ripening, etc.

The action of the regulators is short-lived. In addition, the use of phytohormones gives only impetus to development. But if the plant does not have enough nutrition, stimulation will not bring visible results.

Depending on the chemical composition and method of preparation, the regulators can be:

  • Endogenous: are synthesized in the plant itself. For example, abscisic acid, auxin, brassinolide, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene);
  • Exogenous: analogues of endogenous hormones, they are obtained as a result of organic synthesis.

Depending on the general principle of impact, there are:

  • Stimulants: provoke growth and development. The plant receives a signal that the time has come to grow and develop, its growth and formative processes are temporarily enhanced. This happens either due to active cell division, or due to their stretching in length.
  • Inhibitors: slow growth and development. Inhibitor hormones inhibit seed germination, bud break, stem growth, ovary formation and fruit ripening.

You can learn about the effect of growth promoters on seed germination from our material.

  • We test different growth promoters for plants
    The experiment of our editorial board: which of the 10 popular growth stimulants better than others increase seed germination?

In nature, stimulants and inhibitors act together. Depending on the development phase of the plant, as well as environmental conditions, one of the hormones comes into play. However, when its function is performed or when the state of the environment changes, another phytohormone comes to replace it.

Natural phytohormones never act by themselves: they constantly interact, complementing or, conversely, weakening the influence of each other. It is the complex mechanism of the relationship between stimulating and inhibiting the development of substances explains the numerous failures in the use of drugs by inexperienced plant breeds. Indeed, the same hormone under different conditions gives a completely different result.

Natural hormones and the principle of their effects on plants

Scientists know six main phytohormones, information about which you will find in the table below. The description of biologically active substances is exploratory in nature and does not fully explain their principles and mechanisms of influence on plants. Virtually every hormone has synthetic analogues that can be purchased in stores.

PhytohormoneDescriptionPreparations
Auxin
  • responsible for root development,
  • regulates the flow and distribution of nutrients and water,
  • gives an increase in green mass
Heteroauxin, Kornevin, Roots
Gibberellin
  • accelerates seed germination, flowering and fruit formation,
  • reduces the fall of the ovary,
  • optimizes yield,
  • removes tubers and bulbs from dormancy,
  • helps to accumulate nutrients
Bud, Gibberillin, Gibbersib, Gibberross, Gibbor-M, Ovary, Tomato
Abscyzine
  • suppresses the action of stimulating hormones during a sharp deterioration of the environment in order to save most of the crop,
  • promotes leaf fall,
  • suppresses moisture evaporation from foliage during drought,
  • prolongs the storage of the crop,
  • stimulates the formation of protective scales that cover dormant buds during the cold period,
  • stops primary and secondary growth
Structural analogues of abscisins are not used in agriculture because of the high cost. The level of this hormone can be increased with ethylene.
Ethylene
  • accelerates cell aging,
  • inhibits cell division,
  • forms the color characteristic of ripe fruit,
  • helps the plant to deal with stress
  • induces flowering of some plants
  • changes the ratio of male and female flowers in some varieties of cultures, contributing to an increase in the number of ovaries
The gaseous form of phytohormone ethylene makes it difficult to use it in agriculture in its pure form. However, preparations and substances that form this gas during decomposition have found wide use, for example, Etephon
Cytokine
  • regulates the birth and growth of the kidneys,
  • contributes to leaf aging,
  • increases the number of seeds in the fruit, as well as their germination,
  • positive effect on weight, sugar content and starchiness of root crops and tubers
Cytokinin paste, Cytodef
Brassin
  • contributes to the normal functioning of the immune system of the plant,
  • develops immunity to disease
Epin, Epin Extra

Fortifying preparations for plants that are not phytohormones are commercially available. For example: succinic acid, polypeptides, oligosaccharides, etc.

Recommendations for use: what first, and then what?

The potential of growth regulators is to move the balance of phytohormones laid by nature in the right direction. But how to do it right without harming the plant? In what sequence to use drugs? You can get a general idea of ​​the use of phytohormones from the following recommendations.

  1. Seeds before sowing, as well as seedlings before planting in the open ground, process cytokinins.
  2. If conditions for growth and development are unfavorable, use brassinosteroids immediately after sowing into the ground or transplanting.
  3. Process the seedlings at the stage of 3-4 true leaves with auxins.
  4. Repeat the processing of auxins for green and salad crops before flowering.
  5. Root and tuber crops before flowering can be given impetus to the development of cytokinins.
  6. Treat fruit crops with gibberellins to reduce the fall of the ovaries, as well as increase the quantity and improve the quality of the fruit.
  • Stimulants of flowering and fruiting: a review of preparations for lush flowering and high yield
    Guaranteed to achieve the result of plants will help stimulants flowering and fruiting. But what to choose in order not to be mistaken?

Non-compliance with instructions and sad results

Using stimulants or growth inhibitors, we carry out a serious intervention in the process of plant development conceived by nature itself. And, as often happens, our actions do not always give the desired result. And most often the cause of failures lies in ignoring the instructions of the manufacturer of the drug. Even a slight deviation from the recommendations on the regulator's package can lead to sad consequences.

FAILURES using growth regulators may be associated with the following factors.

  • Wrong choice of drug or treatment period. For example, processing stimulants of ready-to-plant seedlings under adverse conditions for its relocation to a permanent place can lead to the fact that the plants will stretch.
  • Incorrect solution concentration. A solution of low concentration may have insufficient or no positive effect. The solution of high concentration, as a rule, slows down the process of growth and development and can lead to tissue necrosis in the treated areas.
  • Failure of temperature. The solution for the treatment of plants with stimulants must have a certain temperature. If the recommended value is exceeded, the compounds may have a toxic effect. At temperatures below the recommended effect of the use of the regulator may be minimal.
  • Incorrect selection of stimulants for complex processing. The simultaneous use of multiple stimulants should be reasonable. It is recommended to maintain a time interval so that the effect of one substance does not overlap the action of another.

Humus - natural biostimulator

Whatever positive qualities phytohormones possessed, for many summer residents they were and remain "chemistry". And if someone is ready for experiments on his site, then others look at stimulants and inhibitors with caution. However, there is a kind of biostimulants, in the benefit and safety of which no one doubts. We are talking about humus preparations.

Humus is an important organic component of the soil, which includes nutrients necessary for plants. First of all, humus is a fertilizer. However, on the other hand, it is impossible not to mention its stimulating effect on seed germination, growth and development of crops, as well as flowering and fruiting. Therefore, humus preparations (Baikal, Gumat, Niva, Radiance, Renaissance, Slox, Tamir, Emiks, Emochka, etc.) are often used for soaking seeds, bulbs and tubers, for rooting cuttings, spraying vegetative plants.

Both phytohormones and humus preparations are effective assistants in agriculture. But do not treat them like a magic wand, on the wave of which everything starts to grow and erect. They only activate the power of the plant, but in no way do they endow the culture with supernormal abilities. If you want to get a rich harvest with the help of hormones or humus, it is important at least at the initial level to understand the physiology of plants and agrochemistry. It is not as difficult as it seems. In order to prevent annoying mistakes, sometimes it is enough to read the instructions on the packaging of the preparations carefully.

Watch the video: Regulation of growth by the mTOR pathway (February 2020).

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