Prevention of seedling diseases - useful tips from an agronomist

We tell how to grow healthy, strong seedlings and not lose a crop.

It would seem that growing the seedlings is easier than ever: sowed the seeds, waited for seedlings, raised the seedlings to the desired size and transplanted into the ground. But if you want the plants not to hurt, get accustomed to the new place and enjoy the high yield, you have to try a little.

Step 1 - Preparation of seedling containers

Prevention of any diseases of seedlings begins even before sowing, namely with the preparation of containers and soil.

If containers for seedlings were used before, they must be disinfected without fail.

 

For the disinfection of containers, you can use a pink solution of potassium permanganate

Step 2 - Soil Preparation

If you are a novice gardener, it is best to buy ready-made soil mix from a trusted manufacturer in a specialty store.

Of course, you can prepare the soil at home. In this case, the quality of the soil mix will depend on how well you keep the optimal proportions.

 

The composition of the soil for seedlings depends on the specific vegetable culture.

CultureCompositionProportion
Cucumberturf ground / humus1:1
Pumpkinturf ground / humus1:2
Watermelonturf ground / humus1:3
Zucchiniturf ground / humus1:1
Tomatohumus / garden soil / sand2:2:1
Pepperpeat / humus / garden soil1:5:3
Eggplantturfy ground / humus / sand1:2:1
Cabbagepeat / turf ground1:1
Celerypeat / humus1:2

After preparing the mixture, it is worth checking it for acidity (using ordinary litmus paper). For each culture, the optimum pH values ​​are different, but on average they range from 6.0 to 7.0 units.

In the soil mixture for seedlings can not add soil, where in the past year manure (pig, horse, cow) was applied. Often there are salt lizuntsa, which do not allow plants to absorb water with nutrients. Salinity of the soil can lead to the death of seedlings.

Ready soil without fail disinfect. Household primer or calcined, or steamed in an oven, double boiler or microwave.

With the destruction of infectious agents, such measures cope well, but at the same time with the pathogens, the whole complex of living organisms is killed.

 

Before sowing, the soil must not only be sanitized, but also enriched with nutrients

Depletion of the soil after disinfection can adversely affect the health of seedlings. For example, due to the die-off of nitrifying bacteria, ammonia accumulates very quickly in the soil and manganese forms easily digestible, which is very dangerous for many plants.

To enrich the soil useful microorganisms, use preparations containing fungicidal and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, potassium and phosphomobilizing bacteria (for example, Biocomplex BTU for soil, 10 ml per 5 liters of water).

Between the introduction of biological products and the sowing of seeds should take a little time (from two to three days).

Step 3 - seed preparation

The main objectives of pre-sowing treatment are to reject substandard seeds and increase the germination of the remaining ones, to improve the quality of the seedlings.

At home, the seeds can be subjected to the following procedures:

  • calibration;
  • soak;
  • hardening;
  • bubbling;
  • warming up;
  • treatment with fertilizers and growth stimulants;
  • disinfection.

Naturally, it is not necessary to apply all methods of preseeding preparation on the same seeds at once. A combination of two or three is enough. For example, hardening, bubbling and disinfection.

If you are going to grow seedlings from purchased seeds that have undergone treatment (dressing, inlay, drazhirovanie), in addition to prepare them for planting is not necessary.

In no case should not skip the stage of disinfection of seeds. Keep in mind that most of the infectious diseases are transmitted through seeds, although the disease can occur only on an adult plant.

For example, when cucumber seeds are infected with Fusarium, the mycelium of the fungus grows along with the stem of the plant, and only when young cucumbers begin to appear, it activates its “activity”, resulting in the appearance of external symptoms - wilt, tissue death, fruit rot. Therefore, the seeds before sowing must be decontaminated.

The easiest and most affordable way seed disinfection - soak them for 20-30 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate), then rinse in clean water and dry.

 

Most homemade seed decontamination kills only a fraction of the pathogens.

True, it should be understood that potassium permanganate can destroy only those pathogens that are on the surface of seeds. Infectious pathogens that "live" inside the seed, this procedure is not terrible.

It is reasonable to combine disinfection with seed heatinghowever, at home it is not always possible to maintain a stable temperature of 40 ° C for three days. There is a risk of overheating the seeds and damaging part of the embryo.

Of course, destroying all pathogenic microorganisms can chemical disinfectants, but none of them are recommended for use at home - it can be dangerous! Only one way out - turn to bacterial drugs that contain fungicides. For example, Biocomplex BTU (when using this drug, you can do without additional treatment with fertilizers and growth stimulants).

To fungicides, fertilizers and regulators linger longer on the seeds and give a good effect, you can use the Liposam bioplastyr, which plastically covers the surface of the seeds with a polymer shell. At the same time it retains moisture in the seeds. At 0.5 liters of water enough 5 ml of adhesive.

Step 4 - Sowing

After the seeds, soil and containers are prepared, it's time to start sowing directly.

The main thing that should be strictly followed is the time of sowing and the depth of seed embedding. The sowing date is calculated based on the estimated date of planting the seedlings and the optimum age of the plants at this point. Naturally, for each crop (and even for each variety), these data will differ.

 

Depth of embedding seeds in the soil - an important condition for the successful cultivation of seedlings

All basic information on sowing, planting and growing is indicated on the packaging. We give the approximate timing of seed germination, depending on the culture.

CultureThe time of emergence, days
Cucumber2-4
Pumpkin4-5
Watermelon6-7
Zucchini3-5
Tomato5-7
Pepper10-14
Eggplant10-12
Cabbage6-10
Celery7-20

Be sure to mark your crops with tags, especially if you grow several varieties and hybrids of the same crop.

Step 5 - care for seedlings

Until the emergence of seedlings capacity of the seeds sown kept in a warm place away from drafts. This means that you should not put the packaging directly on the window sill. At this stage, the seeds need not so much good lighting as a stable temperature (approximately 18-20 ° C).

The exception is celery. Darkness, especially at temperatures above 20 ° C, inhibits seed germination.

 

It is important to strictly observe the temperature, water and light conditions of seedling care.

After the seeds have risen, you should carefully examine the seedlings. Already, according to some external signs, it is possible to judge the infection with dangerous diseases. This will allow time to take appropriate action.

Step 6 - Dive Seedlings

The next crucial stage is the picking.

Seedlings tomatoesintended for cultivation in greenhouses, cabbage, celery diving in the stage of two true leaves, deepening them to the cotyledons (but the cotyledons themselves should not touch the ground). The root should be slightly shortened in order to stimulate the development of the root system.

 

The timing of the pick depends on the culture.

Peppers in the same stage dive without penetration, otherwise there is a high risk of infecting seedlings with root rot.

Pumpkin crops (cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins, watermelons, melons) are immediately planted in certain containers in order to do without picking. The same is usually done with tomatoes, intended for cultivation in open ground. They are buried when planting seedlings on a permanent place.

Eggplants are also sown in separate containers, but in the stage of four true leaves are transplanted with a clod of earth into large-sized containers.

The tanks with the sprinkled seedlings are placed almost close to each other. Subsequently, the distance is increased so that the leaves of the plants do not overlap each other. Capacities are rotated 180 degrees daily for even illumination.

Step 7 - Seedlings Feeding

About two weeks after the picking (in the stage 4 of these leaves) is held first dressing. Before this period, fertilizing should not be done to prevent the seedlings from being pulled out.

 

The first feeding is carried out sparingly - use half of the recommended dose of fertilizer

Subsequent feeding is repeated every 10 days until the transplanting to a permanent place.

Step 8 - Temperature Mode

Strict adherence to recommendations on temperature, lighting and irrigation are important conditions for growing strong seedlings.

 

In the early stages of development, plants need more heat than in lighting.

Naturally, it is impossible to maintain 100% exactly the required temperature in the room, but your task is to try to follow the following indicators as much as possible.

CultureTemperature conditions
CucumberBefore the emergence of shoots - 25 ° С, after the appearance of shoots - 22 ° С during the day and 16 ° С at night
Pumpkin20-22 ° C during the day and 14-16 ° C at night
WatermelonBefore the emergence of shoots - 25-30 ° С, 4 days after shoots in clear weather - 20-25 ° С, in overcast - 16-18 ° С
Zucchini20-25 ° C
TomatoBefore the emergence of shoots - 24-25 ° С, after the emergence of shoots before picking - 22-23 ° С, after picking in clear weather - 22-23 ° С, in overcast - 19-20 ° С, after the fifth week before landing on a permanent place -19 ° С during the day and 17 ° С at night
PepperBefore the emergence of shoots - 25-28 ° С, after the appearance of shoots -16-18 ° С during the day and 14-16 ° С at night, in a week - 21 ° С
EggplantBefore the emergence of shoots - 25-28 ° С, after the appearance of shoots - 16-18 ° С during the day and 12-14 ° С at night, in 5-6 days - 22-28 ° С during the day and 15-16 ° С at night
CabbageBefore the emergence of shoots - 20 ° С, after the emergence of shoots - 6-8 ° С, 5 days after emergence of shoots and before picking - 14-16 ° С, 2 days after picking - 17-18 ° С, then - 13- 14 ° С
CeleryBefore the formation of 3-4 true leaflets - 15-20 ° C, in the future - 17-22 ° C

Step 9 - Lighting

Proper lighting is equally important for the growth of seedlings. While the requirements for the light mode in different cultures are different.

For example, seedlings pepperfrom the age of 20 days, it is recommended to clean up in a dark place after 7:00 pm, and put it back into the light at 6:00.

Eggplant also sensitive to light. It is desirable pritenyat seedlings until the appearance of single buds. In extreme cases, from the moment the 2nd one appears and until the 4th leaf is formed, close the seedlings from the sun from 6:00 to 8:00.

In the southern regions, seedlings create conditions for reduced daylight hours (no more than 12 hours).

 

For uniform illumination of seedlings capacity is rotated 180 degrees every day.

Tomatoes, especially tall varieties, it is better to illuminate with fluorescent lamps (the distance between the lamps and the plants is 30-50 cm).

The ideal day length for tomato seedlings is as follows: the first 3-4 days after germination - 24 hours, starting from the 4th day and before picking - 18-20 hours, the next 2 weeks after picking - 16-18 hours, after 5 th week of cultivation - 12 hours.

Step 10 - Watering Mode

The next important condition for the maintenance of seedlings is optimum humidity.

For seedlings cucumbersFor example, dry flat air is completely inappropriate. Ideally, the humidity in the room should be 85%. Of course, if you keep the seedlings at home, you shouldn't moisten the air so much. Reasonable compromise - air humidity 60%.

 

It is best to water the seedlings in the morning

Watering seedlings of vegetables should be about once every five days with water a little warmer than room temperature. Ideal - pour water into the pallets, which are containers with plants.

Eggplant seedlings poured with warm water should not be put on a cold window - in a quickly cooled, damp earth the roots can start to die off and the plants will die.

Step 11 - Disease Detection

In the event of suspicious symptoms, it makes sense to take additional measures to protect the seedlings. Unfortunately, almost all chemicals used in the seedlings complexes of large farms can not be used at home. Therefore, the focus is on biological products and growth stimulants.

CultureDisease and pathogenSymptomsPrevention and control
CucumberRoot rot
  • Pre-emergence debris
  • Root rot
  • Withering
  • Disinfection of soil with the introduction of biological products
  • Seed treatment with Biocomplex-BTU (15 ml per 250 ml of water)
  • The introduction of drugs on the basis of trichoderma in the prepared mixture for 3 days before sowing
Fusarium wilt
  • Seedlings seedlings
  • Yellowing and wilting of the cotyledons
  • Disinfection of soil with the introduction of biological products
  • Seed heating
  • Seed treatment with Biocomplex-BTU (15 ml per 250 ml of water)
Anthracnose
  • Kink stem base
  • brown spots in the root collar area
  • Purchase of seeds from proven manufacturers
  • If you suspect a disease - the destruction of diseased plants
  • Watering the plants at the root of copper-containing drugs
TomatoBlack bacterial spotting
  • Developmental delays
  • Small dark spots on cotyledons.
  • Black spots of small size with a yellow border on young leaves
  • Death of seedlings
  • Purchase of seeds from proven manufacturers
  • Ground Disinfection
  • Seed treatment with Biocomplex-BTU (15 ml per 250 ml of water)
  • Spraying of plants with 1% Bordeaux liquid
Blackleg
  • Darkening and dying off of tissue,
  • Wet rot at the bottom of the stem
  • Ground Disinfection
  • Balanced feeding
  • Correct temperature
PepperBlack bacterial spotting
  • Small dark spots on cotyledons
  • Black spots of small size with a yellow border on young leaves
  • Blackening of the stems, leaf fall on adult seedlings
 
  • Purchase of seeds from proven manufacturers
  • Disinfection of seeds before sowing in the solution of potassium permanganate
  • Watering seedlings under the root of a 0.2% solution of Fitolavin in the phase of 2-3 true leaves
  • After 7 days spraying the seedlings with a solution of Biokompleks-BTU (15 ml per 5 l of water)
Vyperyvanie
  • Pre-emergence debris
  • Root collar rot
 
  • Soaking the seeds before sowing in a solution of the drug Ecogel at the rate of 2.5 ml per 100 ml of water for 12 hours
  • The introduction of drugs on the basis of trichoderma in the prepared mixture for 3 days before sowing seeds
 

Eggplant

 
Fomopsis
  • Lodging shoots
 
  • Purchase of seeds from proven manufacturers
  • Spraying of plants with 1% Bordeaux liquid
Blackleg 
  • Bottom part of shoots becomes thin, darkens
  • Plants fade
 
  • Ground Disinfection
  • Seed treatment with Biocomplex-BTU (15 ml per 250 ml of water)
Cabbage   Vascular bacteriosis 
  • Lightening the edges of the cotyledons
  • Thinning, stunting, curvature of shoots
  • Yellowing of the edges of the leaves, blackening of the veins, slower growth
  • Lower leaves fall on adult seedlings
 
  • Purchase of seeds from proven manufacturers
  • Seed warming up before sowing
  • Seed treatment with Biocomplex-BTU (15 ml per 250 ml of water) with the addition of Liposam adhesive
Blackleg 
  • Bottom part of shoots turns brown, decays,
  • Shoots lodge and die
  • The root neck of an adult seedling becomes thin, darkens
 
  • Compliance with irrigation, temperature conditions, good illumination and the optimal distance between plants
  • Ground Disinfection
  • Seed treatment with Biocomplex-BTU (15 ml per 250 ml of water)
  • Watering the soil with a solution of colloidal sulfur
Fusarium wilt
  • Yellowing and wilting of the lower leaves, followed by abscission
 
  • Ground Disinfection
  • If a disease is suspected, the destruction of diseased plants
  • Seed treatment with Biocomplex-BTU (15 ml per 250 ml of water)
  • Spraying the seedlings with Ecogel solution at the rate of 100 ml per 10 l of water

By following these guidelines, you can be sure that your seedlings will grow healthy and strong!

 

Watch the video: Plant Pathology Part 1 for AFO 2018, NABARD or Any other Agricultural exams (July 2019).