Even a single unstressed tree can pretty much spoil the mood of the gardener, which is to say about several in a row. However, in order to eliminate the cause leading to the death of seedlings, you first need to identify it.
Most often, planting trees, the gardener makes the same mistake. Which one? Options are not so little. Let's try to consider the most common ones.
Reason 1. Purchase of an unsuitable sapling.
With the onset of the next season, the points of sale of fruit seedlings grow on every corner, like mushrooms after rain. They are brought to garden partnerships, put up in front of hypermarkets or along the highways - the temptation to buy an interesting variety is extremely high and increases every day. However, taking a tree from an unknown supplier is always a risk. Even if we assume that this is the sort that the seller promises, there are still not many chances to get a harvest. In such dubious conditions, weak, sick or non-acclimatized seedlings grown without adherence to agricultural technology are most often sold. In addition, no one can say exactly how much time they spent at the point of sale in the excavated state, and what is the probability that they will take root.
The most attractive in such mini-markets are usually southern seedlings. Smiling sellers praise a tree that has already become green and promise a harvest in a year, but they don’t take into account that all this is possible only in the native land of the plant. In the middle lane, it probably will not survive even the coming winter.
Reason 2. The seedling root system, which was ruined before planting.
As in the street sale, and in shopping centers you can find trees with an open root system. It does not make sense to buy such seedlings - after 6 hours the roots will begin to dry out, and the survival rate will fall sharply. Another thing is seedlings with roots in a clay mash, they can be stored for 3-4 days.
If for some reason you still bought a seedling with an open root system, immediately go to the site, immerse it for a few hours in a barrel of water, and immediately prepare the landing pit yourself and hurry up with the landing. Can not plant a plant on the same day? Moisten the roots, wrap them in wet sacking, and on top with polyethylene.
In the case of an autumn planting, immediately upon purchase, remove all the leaves from the tree so that it does not have to expend any moisture on them either.
Reason 3. Excessive pruning of roots.
Many gardeners carefully inspect the root system before planting the plant and partially shorten it. It is very important at this point not to overdo it, because the restoration of the roots for a young tree is extremely energy-intensive, and in combination with a transplant it may not be at all possible.
It is worth removing only the torn, rotten or damaged roots, and if you see that the injured area has already begun to heal, do not rush to cut it. Shortening the central root is not at all possible, it is better to dig a bigger hole.
Reason 4. Improper preparation of the landing pit.
The depth and diameter of the landing pit, as well as the fertility of the soil with which it is filled, are also of great importance. It is necessary to prepare a hole before you go for a sapling.
On heavy soils, its depth and diameter should not be less than a meter, 75 cm is enough on the lungs. 5-7 cm of drainage is poured at the bottom of the dug pit, a mound of fertile soil is on top, then a seedling is installed and the pit is filled to the brim.
In areas with acidic soil, the soil should be deoxidized before planting the tree.
It is not too reasonable to fill in the roots of the seedling with the same soil that you took out of the pit, it is more correct to prepare a light nutrient substrate. It should include black earth (50%), sand (25%), organic matter (25%). It is also necessary to add phosphate and potash mineral fertilizers and exclude fresh manure.
Reason 5. Deepening of the root collar.
Incorrect, or rather too deep planting can ruin a tree, especially if it ate it is a stone fruit. The root neck, which warms up in the soil, weakens the whole plant, contributes to the development of diseases and then death.
To avoid this, when planting, leave the root neck (the place where the root system passes into the trunk) 3-4 cm above the ground level. With irrigation, the land will settle, and the tree will acquire a comfortable position in the soil.
Reason 6. Moistening
Often cottages are located in waterlogged areas with close groundwater. Trees in this case do not develop and die quickly. Raise the level of soil on the site is quite expensive, but there are other options for acquiring a full garden.
Firstly, one can choose seedlings grafted onto a low-growing clone stock, with a superficial root system. Of course, the choice of varieties and species greatly reduced, but the plants will be able to settle down.
Secondly (and this is the most common option), trees can be planted on hills. In this case, the soil is prepared, as for the planting pit, but it is piled up with a hill 70-150 cm high. A tree is planted on its top, a support is being installed nearby for the first time. The subtlety of such cultivation is that additional watering is required (the soil in the hill dries out quickly) and shelter in winter.
Reason 7. Thick landing.
On the standard 6 acres, I want to place a garden, a garden, and a lawn, because there is always not enough space. In addition, young seedlings look so thin that gardeners often plant them closer to each other than recommended.
Within a few years, the crowns of trees grow and begin to oppress neighbors. The light mode, air exchange is disturbed, diseases develop, the harvest is reduced, and in the worst case one or several trees die. To avoid this, it is necessary to observe the rules of placement of plantings or choose columnar and dwarf varieties of trees.
- Trees that cannot be planted nearbyWe talk about why the trees do not get along close, and how to prevent a dangerous neighborhood.
Reason 8. Wrong watering.
Often inexperienced gardeners sin by irrigating trees by simply throwing an irrigation hose to the trunk. It is not only useless, but can kill a young plant. The fact is that the suction roots, which need moisture and nutrition, are not located at the trunk, but along the contour of the crown. It is along this imaginary circle that it is worth making grooves in which water and fertilizers are applied.
- How to water the trees and bushes in the gardenHow much water does a fruit garden need for good growth and development?
Reason 9. Untimely Pruning of the Seedling
Post-plant pruning can also provoke a weakening or death of a tree in the first 2-3 years of life. The fact is that the largest buds of young trees are located at the ends of the branches. They then form foliage, which is necessary for any plant. However, if these branches are pruned, the remaining buds will awaken later, which will lead to desiccation of the bark of the branches and insufficient development.
- Fruit Tree Trimming CalendarVisual table gardener note.
In the first year, one can trim only seedlings that do not yet have side branches, and only if the central conductor is higher than 80 cm.
Reason 10. Planting a seedling in place of an old tree.
The place vacated in the garden after the death of the old tree is so eager to take something up. It is easiest to plant the same plant there as it was before, and in a few years to go to the usual place for a harvest. Alas, this theory does not work, and the seedlings are dying one after another.
The fact is that a tree, like any other organism, leaves a certain set of root excretions. In addition, the pathogens of the disease, which destroyed the old tree, also do not disappear from the soil and attack the fresh plantings with appetite.
To minimize possible consequences, alternate stone and seed trees when planting in one place, and better plant new plants to new places.
Avoid these mistakes, and the likelihood that the garden will please you with fruiting, and seedlings with a high survival rate, will grow at times.
You can share your own experiences or ask questions to other gardeners in our Amateur Gardeners Club.