Cauliflower is a real storehouse of vitamins and microelements: iron, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus. This is one of the favorite foods supporters of proper nutrition and an indispensable tool in losing weight. Try to grow this vegetable in your garden!
We call this type of cabbage cauliflower not because of its coloring, but because its head is made up of small inflorescences that are eaten. The largest producers of cauliflower are the USA, France, Italy, India and China, but in our climate you can successfully grow this tasty and healthy vegetable.
When to sow cauliflower on seedlings?
The main method of growing cauliflower is sprouts, because this plant is rather capricious and more demanding than its “relative” - white cabbage. The timing of sowing cauliflower seeds is determined on the basis of the plant variety.
|Cauliflower Varieties||Terms of sowing seedlings||Terms of planting in open ground|
|Early varieties and hybrids||March 5 - 30||April 25 - May 15 (after 25-60 days)|
|Medium late varieties||April 10 - May 10||May 20 - June 15 (after 35-40 days)|
|Late varieties||May 25 - June 10||July 1 - 10 (after 30-35 days)|
Experienced growers begin preparing cauliflower seeds for seedlings with hardening according to the following algorithm:
- soak the seeds for 15 minutes in hot water (up to 50 ° C);
- cool in cold water;
- soak the seeds for a day in a nutrient solution of a mineral fertilizer, for example, nitrophoska (1 tsp. per 1 l of water);
- wash and dry the seeds;
- For 2-4 days, place the seeds in a cool place (up to 2 ° C, for example, on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator).
Seeds can be prepared for sowing and warming. To do this, dip them in a thermos with hot (50-55 ° C) water for 2 hours, and then dry.
After this procedure, the seeds can be sown in pots by several pieces, since the pickles hardly endure a pick. If you plan to sow the seeds in one box, then select the container deeper and arrange the seeds not thickly so as not to damage the roots when transplanting into the ground.
Sowing cabbage seedlings
At the bottom of the pot, place the drainage, then pour the ground neutral reaction. This soil is sold in stores, but if you wish, you can prepare it yourself: mix 1 part lowland peat, 1 part sand and 10 parts of humus or 4 parts lowland peat, 2 parts rotted sawdust and 1 part mullein.
Before sowing the seeds, calcine the substrate in the oven for 5 minutes at a temperature of 60-80 ° C (no more!). This will clear the soil of harmful microorganisms and increase the disease resistance of plants.
Seeds are sown in cups or peat pots, deepening 0.5 cm and compacting the soil, and then mulched with a thin layer of sand.
Care for cauliflower seedlings
The optimum temperature for the emergence of shoots is 18-20 ° C, then after the emergence of shoots (usually it is the 7-10th day after sowing) it is reduced to 6-8 ° C, moving the seedlings closer to the light source. A week later, the temperature regime is changed to 15-18 ° C during the day and 8-10 ° C - at night. When 2 true leaves appear, cauliflower seedlings are transferred to a larger container.
It is not recommended to dive cauliflower seedlings, but if you do decide on a picking, then sow the seeds in rows: make furrows 3 cm apart and spread the seeds at intervals of 1 cm.
If the seeds are sown in a common box, then a pick should be carried out 2 weeks after the emergence of seedlings, after which the seedlings are provided 21 ° C indoors until they take root. The temperature is then maintained at 17 ° C during the day and 9 ° C at night.
Cauliflower seedlings are watered infrequently (once a week), but plentifully, and the room is aired after each watering. Loosen the soil is not necessary - the roots of cauliflower are located close to the surface.
How to feed the cauliflower seedlings?
When the seedlings appear 2-3 true leaves, spray them with a solution of boric acid (2 g per 1 liter of water). After the appearance of 4 leaves, dissolve 5 g of ammonium molybdate in the bucket (10 l) of water and again foliar feeding of seedlings.
Planting cauliflower in the ground
At 45-50 days the seedlings of cauliflower are ready for planting in the ground, usually by this time the seedlings already have 4-5 leaves. Two weeks before landing, begin to harden the seedlings, bringing it to a cooler room and leaving it for a while.
Good cauliflower precursors: root vegetables, legumes, onions, early cucumber varieties. The bad ones: tomato, beet, radish, radish and all kinds of cabbage.
The soil under the cauliflower is prepared in the fall: they dig it up, make manure or compost (7-8 kg per 1 square meter). In the spring, the earth is fertilized with mineral fertilizers: for 1 square meter - 30 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of potassium chloride and 50 g of superphosphate, after which the soil is again dug up, breaking up lumps.
Terms of planting cauliflower seedlings in the ground depend on the variety (see table above), as long as the threat of frost has passed. It is better to choose a place for planting sunny, the soil should be of neutral acidity (pH 6.7-7.4).
Cauliflower planting scheme: 60-70 × 25-30 cm. Pour a pinch of ash into each well, mixing it with the ground, then pour it with water (1 l per well). Bury the seedling before the first true leaflet. If disembarkation takes place in April-May, cover the garden bed for several days with spunbond or film.
Mandatory procedure for cauliflower is shading. In June-July, fasten 2-3 leaves from the socket over each formed head. You can also break a large sheet and use it to create a shadow.
Despite the fact that the cauliflower is not too adapted to growing in the middle lane, caring for it is not much different from caring for white cabbage: regular watering, loosening, hilling, feeding and treatment of diseases.
Cauliflower is watered once a week (the first time after planting - twice a week) at the rate of 6-10 liters per 1 sq.m. After watering or rain, the soil is carefully loosened to a depth of 8 cm, removing weeds. Cauliflower should be regularly spuded to increase root growth.
Feed cabbage three times per season: for the first time on the 10th day after planting, then at intervals of 2 weeks. Top dressing is brought under a root at the rate of 5 l of fertilizer per 1 sq. M. The composition of the first feeding: 0.5 liters of liquid mullein, 10 liters of water and 1 tbsp. complex mineral fertilizer. Second: in 10 l of water add 40 g of superphosphate, 30 g of ammonium nitrate, 2 g of boric acid and potassium chloride. The third feeding: in the ratio of 1: 8, mullein is diluted with water and 20 g of calcium chloride, 30 g of superphosphate and ammonium nitrate are taken for 10 liters of this solution.
If you follow all the rules of growing cauliflower, then the probability that the plant can become ill or become a victim of pests is extremely small. But - forewarned, it means, is armed, and therefore we offer to get acquainted with the main problems of cabbage health.
|Diseases and pests||Signs of defeat||Prevention||Methods of struggle and treatment|
|Quila||Roots and swellings on the roots||Top dressing solution of dolomite flour (1 cup per 10 liters of water)||The introduction of ash in the ground throughout the growing season|
|Ring spots||Black dots on leaves and stems with the formation of circles around||Disinfection of soil and seeds before sowing||Fungicide treatment. After harvesting, remove all plant residues.|
|Mucous bacteriosis (wet rot)||Small watery spots of dark color on the heads and black oblong - on the stems||Spring processing with a 0.4% suspension of colloidal sulfur||Cutting stains with the capture of a healthy area; destruction of severely affected plants|
|Fusarium||Yellow-green color of the leaves, the appearance of dark specks, dark veins||Add Fitosporina-M in water for watering plants||Treatment with Fundazole|
|Blackleg||Root collar blackening||Soil disinfection with formalin solution, seed treatment with manganese solution||Destruction of diseased plants|
|Perinosporosis (downy mildew)||Depressed spots on sheets, whitish bloom from the underside of the sheet||Disinfection of soil and seeds||Treatment with a fungicide (0.05% suspension of the drug Ridomil Gold)|
Against the pests of cauliflower (cabbage scoops, caterpillars of the cabbage moth), insecticides should be used, for example, Enterobacterin. You can also use a folk remedy for spraying - an infusion of burdock leaves (1/3 of a bucket filled with burdock leaves, pour water and insist for 24 hours).
How to store cauliflower?
Typically, the harvest of cauliflower is collected in mid-August, when the heads have reached a diameter of 8 cm. They need to be cut with 3-4 leaves that are 2 cm below the last leaf.
Store cauliflower in a cool dark place with good ventilation and low humidity. It is best to hang it by the stalk so that the heads do not touch each other. You can also remove the leaves, wrap the heads in cling film or paper and put them in the fridge.
The best way to store cauliflower is freezing. Before sending the cabbage into the freezer, the heads should be dried and cut into small pieces or divided into florets.
Do not be afraid to grow this, at first glance, quite capricious vegetable on your site. If you should take care of the plant, then you can perfectly diversify the home menu with interesting cauliflower dishes.