If your apple, pear or other fruit tree produces many fruits in one year, and in the next one “rests”, you should know that you need to fight the periodicity of fruiting.
The periodicity of fruiting is such a phenomenon, when fruit trees produce an excessively high yield of fruits (often of poor quality) in one year, and the next remain without fruits.
A rich harvest is not always good
This is typical of most breeds and varieties. The frequency of fruiting is most pronounced in apple treesless - stone rocks.
Completely get rid of the frequency of fruiting is impossible. But this phenomenon can be combated by creating conditions for the trees in which they will produce a good harvest in the current year and plant flower buds for the next year’s harvest.
A significant impact on the frequency of fruiting have:
- stock (a plant that is grafted onto a stalk or bud of another variety or species);
- growing conditions.
The reason for the transition of trees from annual (regular) to periodic fruiting is overloading them with flowering buds and high yields with weakened progressive growth. For annual fruiting, it is necessary that at the same time as the development of the fruits of the current year, flower buds are laid on the tree for the next year's harvest.
The annual growth of branches is considered good if the part of the shoot that has grown during the year has a length of at least 30 cm.
When an excessively large number of fruits are formed at the moment of flower budding (from late June to August), there is a shortage of synthesized substances (carbohydrates, proteins). As a result, bookmark flower buds becomes impossible. Therefore, the tree in the following year does not bear fruit.
Understand how many fruits will be possible by the number of flowers.
In the lean year the plant does not spend assimilates (organic compounds - carbohydrates, sugars, amino acids, etc. - necessary for the plant to grow and maintain life) for the nutrition of the fruit. Therefore, conditions are created for laying a large number of flower buds. So there is an alternation of productive years with lean.
Sometimes the tree can not bear fruit for two years in a row. This is due to the fact that in the harvest year it was greatly weakened, and his flower buds did not form in the second year.
The frequency of fruiting in a tree is exacerbated when:
- intensive growth;
- weakening growth;
- overload with generative (flower) buds, especially in winter and autumn varieties of apple and pear.
In this case, the fruits become shallow and do not acquire a natural color.
If you do not fight with periodicity, the fruits will shrink every year.
Periodically fruiting trees in the year of fruiting spend their entire supply of carbohydrates, proteins and synthesized assimilates for the formation of a larger crop. Trees are depleted, and growth processes are inhibited, spare nutrients do not accumulate.
Under favorable conditions (no frost during flowering, timely protection from the flowering beetle, a balanced diet), too many flower buds are laid on the trees. Which is also not very helpful.
Some horticultural crops regulate the number of fruits by shedding the excess ovary (in the middle lane it occurs in June). However, in apple, pear, peach, plum, this self-regulation mechanism is not sufficiently developed, and the fruit still grows very much. And this, in turn, inhibits the formation of fruit buds, which is why the harvest is reduced next year.
There are several ways to regulate fruiting:
- intensive pruning of the crown;
- the introduction of higher doses of fertilizers;
- thinning of flowers and ovaries.
Strong pruning and plenty of food they provoke a tree to active growth, moderate fruiting and the formation of sprouts of the reserve fruiting for the subsequent fruitful year. If you follow all the rules, these techniques help to avoid periodicity.
Pruning helps shape the right amount of fruit.
You can also resort to manual thinning, leaving only the ovary of better quality in the tree. Moreover, the distance between adjacent ovaries should be in the range of 10-20 cm. One ovary should account for 10-30 leaves. In large-fruited varieties, 10 leaves should be left on the fruit, and in summer varieties, 30 leaves.
Thinning of ovaries in late June - early July does not have a particular effect on the regularity of fruiting, but it significantly improves the quality of the fruit.
Thinning of ovaries is most effective on young trees. To get a good result, this technique is carried out during flowering or immediately after it. It is best to remove excess ovary with a secateur.
In abundantly flowering trees, it is possible to remove not individual flowers, but whole inflorescences. However, this technique is always associated with risk. Under normal conditions, if frost occurs during the flowering of a tree, the flowers that open later do not freeze. And if we remove the ovary entirely, it is likely to lose a significant part of the crop.
Ovary Thinning Scheme
If you want to harvest a good harvest of apples, pears, plums and other fruits every year, follow these tips. Believe me, the result will not be long in coming.