If your garden has a high level of groundwater, and during the spring flood and after heavy rains, water in some places stagnates for a long time - plant plants that are suitable for such conditions.
It often happens that during thawing of snow or after heavy precipitation ground water on the site for a long time is kept at a high level. In such a situation, the roots of trees and bushes are in the water for a long time, they cannot breathe and die after a while.
Frequently, the opposite situation occurs when the soil at the site is damp and wet, and the plants nevertheless dry out and also die. This phenomenon is called physiological drought, which is caused by a lack of air entering the roots of plants. If the groundwater level is high (about 0.5 m), and the soil is dense and poorly absorbs water, which is why it is almost impossible to drain, the choice of plants should be taken with special care.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to change the hydrological features of the area, it is only possible to adapt to the existing conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to plant plants that can tolerate excessive soil moisture. In areas with wet land, trees and coniferous shrubs grow poorly. However, there are exceptions among them: these are not very popular, but noteworthy ornamental plants that will adorn your garden even though it is difficult to pass in spring because of water.
Coniferous trees for wet soils
The coniferous plants, which endure excessive wetting of the soil, are bog cypress.
Swamp cypress, or taxiodium double row
Swamp cypress needles fall red in the fall and fall for the winter
This plant is little known, and is rarely found in our gardens so far. Young specimens of swamp cypress (Taxodium distichum) are sensitive to frost, and plants of 5-6 years of age acquire good frost resistance. The crown of a cypress has the shape of a regular cone; in the fall, light green soft needles are painted in a burgundy-brown color and fall off, like in larch. The exotic appearance of the tree is associated with the gardens of the Mediterranean countries.
A characteristic unique feature of swamp cypress is pneumatic pneumatic or respiratory roots. They protrude vertically above the surface of the earth and resemble the fantastic periscopes from the Harry Potter films. The plant is intended for planting in the coastal zone of water bodies, streams, ponds.
Air roots, or pneumathores, are designed and operated in such a way that the cypress can grow even in water.
An ideal for planting in wet places is also considered to be a relic (existed in ancient geological epochs) deciduous tree Metasequoia, the oldest. It is noteworthy that at first petrified imprints of needles were found and only then living trees were discovered and preserved in the mountains of China. In appearance, metasequoia resembles its American cousin, the cypress marsh. At home in China, it is called aquatic larch because it grows around rice paddies flooded with water.
Like larch, for the winter, Metasequoia sheds pine needles with small sprigs.
The shape of the crown in Metasequoia is correct, narrowly conical. Like the “fellow” kiparis, the needles of the plant are seasonal: the new one grows in the spring, and in the autumn it is painted in a beautiful yellow-bronze shade. Metasequoia is characterized by rapid growth and frost-resistance, ideally tolerates pruning. It is intended for planting as a protective fence, as well as for framing water objects.
Thuja folded, or giant, popular western thuja (or vital tree) and Canadian hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). The latter deserves a more detailed description. This tree with evergreen needles is perfect for all sorts of fences. Hemlock will perfectly play the role of a wide hedge, since it lends itself to free formation and cutting.
Cutting thin and delicate twigs of Canadian hemlock is not necessary - the plant looks good both in the form of a hedge and in a solitary planting
However, hemlock can protect your site from prying eyes, even without pruning, being in its "original" form. Also, the tree will perfectly fill the open spaces and become a hedge from prying eyes. In the solitary planting, the hemlock attracts attention with its unusual appearance: thin hanging shoots, densely studded with small needles, give this coniferous plant a picturesque and charming.
Deciduous trees for wet soils
Among the deciduous trees, there are many more plants that calmly "relate" to too wet ground.
Alder is gray
One of the most "patient" in this sense - gray alder (Alnus incana). Well tolerated wet (swampy, coastal) ground alder gray Pendula (Pendula) - the original tree, in height and width reaching 6 m. Its shoots falling to the water on the shore of the pond look very romantic. But still this tree is large, more miniature forms will be suitable for growing in front gardens. Alder bush varieties strike with unusual color, for example, Aurea alder with golden leaves. Unusually looks tree varieties Laciniate (Laciniata) with openwork crown and dissected atypical for culture cut leaves.
Alder Gray Laciniata
Wet areas are a favorite habitat for various willow species. The most popular is white willow (Salix alba). Her garden form, known for parks and city squares, is Tristis (Tristis) - weeping willow with hanging sprouts. Many unusual varieties have been bred - with silver leaves - Sericea (Sericea) and with bright red or orange ascending shoots - Chermezina (Chermesina).
White Willow Chermesina
It should, however, be remembered that, willow should be chosen so that the parameters of the adult tree correspond to the size of the garden. Classic willow Tristis is a tree for large spaces, fast-growing and expansive. In small gardens it is more logical to plant a purple willow Nana (Nana) or Pendula (Pendula).
Pterokaria (lapini ash-leaved)
Blooming pterokaria resembles a green waterfall
A less well-known tree is the ash-leaved, or pterocaria (Pterocarya fraxinifolia). It grows well in flooded lowlands, withstands prolonged stagnation of moisture, so it is recommended for planting on the banks of reservoirs, in damp places that are not suitable for other plants. Large feathery leaves and drooping inflorescences, earrings give the plant a special charm.
Ornamental shrubs for wet areas
The most popular types of "waterproof" shrubs include: white deren (Cornus alba), baby turf (Cornus stolonifera), spiraeus Douglas (Spiraea douglasii), and also viburnum ordinary, or red (Viburnum opulus).
In the garden, all these shrubs are beautiful plants of the so-called "second plan". They perform their "defensive" functions clearly, forming a hedge and being a natural barrier against the wind or prying eyes. Separately growing deren and viburnum are used for decorative purposes - they not only with dignity can withstand the rushing streams of water in the spring, but also decorate the garden with their brightly colored shoots and clusters of berries in the summer.
Breaking the garden on heavy wet soils, it should be remembered that with the growth and development of plants, the water balance of the area changes. The need for water and nutrients in adult trees and shrubs is constantly increasing, and hence the water consumption increases. Therefore, over time, the process of selecting plants for a wet area will become more flexible. And besides resistant and "waterproof" you can grow any other bushes and trees that you like.