The beds are different wide, narrow, high and low, mulched, and also sharpened in boxes or bags. The most important thing is to choose the right option for your plot, taking into account the weather conditions and the soil structure, because the crop will depend on it.
It is difficult to imagine a summer cottage without planting cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, or at least parsley and lettuce. Even if landowners initially planned to spend weekends only for barbecues, pleasant conversations in friendly company and contemplation of the wilderness, in a year or two on the site, in addition to flower beds and recreation areas, as a rule, the first beds appear. In order to obtain maximum yield, many factors should be taken into account when creating them (from weather conditions to soil composition), and then even the most complex crops can be safely grown.
In the northern regions, it is advisable to make raised and high beds, because in spring, they thaw out earlier and warm up faster, and in summer the soil is warmer on them than on ordinary beds. Moreover, they are indispensable in the wet and submerged areas. If you make the beds in boxes 50-70 cm wide, then you can even grow potatoes, roots and vegetables in them.
And in the southern regions, on the contrary, the beds should be deepened in order to avoid drying out the soil and to protect from the wind, and the land should be richly mulched. High beds in the boxes also fit, in the presence of thick walls that will help retain moisture and do not allow it to evaporate quickly.
Consider the most popular among gardeners beds, which have proven to be effective.
These beds are good for the northern regions, as well as for areas with clay soil and high groundwater storage. Raised above ground level by 10–20 cm beds-boxes, 70–80 cm wide, enclosed in a case of boards or logs, are perfect for growing vegetables, grapes and stone fruit.
As a rule, cardboard is first laid on the bottom of the box (in order not to let the weeds in), then a layer of organic fertilizers and a layer of soil 10-15 cm thick. Such beds must be equipped with drip irrigation and mulched - sawdust, film, straw. Passages between boxes is also better to cover turf. In the autumn, after you harvest the last harvest, you should reintroduce organic matter and fertilizer to the garden bed, covering all with a layer of fertile soil and covering it with film for the winter.
Many gardeners have noticed that the plants located on the edges of the beds grow larger than in the middle. This is due to the fact that they get more sunlight because they are not obscured by their neighbors. If you make narrow beds, boxes 40-60 cm wide, you can get a great harvest, because all the plants planted on them, are extreme. Landing is necessary in staggered order. It is also worth considering that these beds are not suitable for root crops and potatoes.
This type of high beds is suitable for heavy clay overmoistened soils with a shallow fertile layer of 10-15 cm, as well as areas with surface groundwater up to 1 m. Creating crests contributes to good drainage, warming up and venting the soil furrows, you can increase the fertile layer of the mound. For the arrangement of such beds, the soil is dug up and, with the help of a hoe or a spade, they cut ridges 20-25 cm high, 50-70 cm wide, and with a slope under a slope of 45-50 degrees. It is best to do this in the fall, then for the new season the land will be compacted, and due to the fact that the crests are freezing cold, in winter almost all the pests will die in them.
The standard height of the top of such an embankment is 18 cm, but for planting carrots, parsley and beets, the top of the ridge is expanded to 30 cm. More gentle slopes are made so that the earth does not dry out. If the soil is too wet, you can make steep slopes. Watering and feeding is carried out through the grooves between the ridges, which allows you to distribute moisture and fertilizer evenly between plantings.
Plants on such beds are staggered, depending on their height. So, undersized varieties are planted on both sides of the groove at a distance of 35-40 cm, sredneroslye and tall - only on one side. Crop harvested on ridges for 2-3 weeks earlier than on the classic beds.
Hills-beds and beds-pits
These beds are well suited for the northern regions and are filled with organic mounds 0.8–0.9 m high and 1.9–2 m wide. This is an excellent option for medium-grown tomatoes, beans, corn, and pumpkin. Such beds are created according to the principle of a multilayer cake:
- the first layer consists of large branches of trees, large stems of plants, thick boughs, which provide air access and drainage;
- then a layer of food waste, sawdust and wood chips is laid;
- then there is humus and compost, which will give heat, decomposing and provide the plants with useful substances;
- and last of all, a layer of fertile soil is filled up, which must be carefully tamped down.
Also on such a bed it is necessary to provide supports for tall and climbing plants.
In the southern regions, where there are problems with soil moistening, similar beds are constructed, but instead of hills, pits or trenches are dug, which are filled with organic matter in layers. Such in-depth beds retain moisture, so water the plants in them need much less.
Boxes-beds and boxes-boxes
These beds will help you get a good harvest, even on the most difficult soils. After all, they came to us from distant African Uganda - a country with a hot and arid climate. In order to create such a bed, you will need a jute, polypropylene or plastic tight bag (box). It must be installed on the base, such as bricks or stones, so that weed does not get inside. At the bottom of the bag or box, you need to make a hole for the irrigation pipe (you can take an ordinary polypropylene pipe and drill holes in it), after installation of which the structure begins to fill. The first layer should be drainage, therefore claydite or gravel are poured to the bottom of the bag, then the soil mixture is added. Instead of an irrigation pipe, you can make a chute of stones. The whole structure needs to be strengthened, large logs or tree trunks can serve as a support. Watering such beds is necessary only through an irrigation pipe or chute, so that the plants do not rot the roots. In such constructions cucumbers and tomatoes feel great.
- Garden in bags: African-style vertical bedsAfrican beds will allow you to grow a good crop on the most poor soil.
Capital beds containers
They are suitable for small areas, as well as for those who are going to grow healthy crops in small quantities. For the organization of such beds are perfect stone, timber or brick. These materials are environmentally friendly and the design of them will look very aesthetic. Containers are actually flower pots for plants, enlarged in size, up to 1 m wide and from 30 cm to 80 cm high. If such a box is covered with a transparent polycarbonate roof, it will help to cut off excessive sunlight, also trellis can be made for woven plants.
The container is filled with layers, the bottom is not concreted, as excessive moisture from the garden must go to the ground. The first layer is a drainage layer, piled with pebbles or expanded clay, and also establishes a fine mesh that protects the roots of plants from rodents and moles. The next layer is a quickly decaying organic and compost. The last, topmost layer is a light fertile soil.
For container beds, drip irrigation is necessary, as well as the obligatory mulching of the soil. The only drawback of capital structures is the strong freezing of soil in them in winter, so in the northern regions perennials in such beds will not survive.
If you want to create a garden on your plot, then you need to approach its organization responsibly, taking into account many factors that may prevent you from harvesting a good harvest. Smart beds will help you at minimum cost, get the maximum result and enjoy the process.