When buying a house, it often turns out that the site has a high level of groundwater. And if this is not always a danger for plants, then dacha buildings are threatened with obvious troubles. Therefore, it is worth thinking about installing a drainage system.
With the onset of spring, many gardeners are faced with the problem of flooding the basement and basement. You can avoid these evils by using the drainage system to drain water. Now we will describe the main points that must be considered before choosing and installing such an extensive system.
There are two types of drainage: surface and deep. Surface the systems are designed to collect excess water from the surface of the site (stagnant pools, after thaw and snow melt). Deep structures are used to divert water from the soil (for example, at elevated groundwater levels).
Depending on the location of the features, drainage structures are divided into two types:
- point - This is the simplest type of construction, which is mounted in places where moisture is collected (lowlands, waterproof soil layers, etc.). Drainage systems are laid from these collection points to the nearest gutter, collecting well or storm sewer;
- linear represent a system of pipes or gutters, through which the fluid is redirected to the point of the spillway. They can be superficial or deep. Surface drainage takes place at ground level, and deep water is laid underground, at groundwater level. It is imperative to lay the deep drainage system, if groundwater is at a level of 2.5 m and above.
With increased "bogged" area, which is observed in the spring, after heavy rains or heavy melting of snow, it is necessary to install a surface drainage system.
In such a drainage system includes a water well, the water from which can be used for watering the garden.
The simplest system is surface point drainage. It is used for local collection of water from the surface. Typically, such systems are installed under the gutters laid on the roof, under the taps of the washbasin on the site, in lowlands and other places where water stagnates. The system usually includes several required elements.
Storm water inlet
Its role is usually performed by a rectangular or oval plastic container equipped with elements for connecting it to the water drainage system (storm sewer). To prevent garbage from entering the receiver, it is supplemented with baskets or a net. "Advanced" models are equipped with siphons and hydraulic locks to eliminate unpleasant odors.
This tank is covered with a protective cover and connected to the drainage pipes or drainage system. Water from the tracks and flower beds gets into such an improvised well.
Thanks to this protective device, the water does not flow in the opposite direction, but goes straight into the water well.
The linear surface drainage system is complemented by a collection of pipes and gutters covered with gratings. They are laid along the perimeter of the site and in other "problem" places. Pipes should be laid with a slope to the well.
Deep drainage is used in cases where it is necessary to divert groundwater and reduce the level of marshiness of the site. There are several options for the organization of "underground" drainage.
This is the easiest and cheapest way to create a complete drainage facility on the site. For its construction:
- dig trenches along the entire length of the plot with a slight slope. Take them to the collector well;
- ditch half filled with broken brick or small stone;
- lay gravel over the layer of stones and cover it with an inverted sod;
- Pour the soil over the turf.
For the organization of brick drainage, you can use any available materials.
If the site is located under an incline, dig through the ditches across the slope. This will help drain water flowing from it.
The only drawback of such a system is that it silts up too quickly and ceases to drain water from the site.
This method of drainage also proved to be a good idea. To build such a system is not difficult, it does not silt and serves for quite a long time. When organizing soft drainage stack two layers:
- waterproofing (from tecton);
- filtering (from geotextiles).
How to build a soft drainage system:
- dig out drainage ditches of the required length;
- lay a layer of tecton on the bottom of the trench so that it covers its sides;
- lay a geotextile on the tecton so that it covers the walls of the trench, and leave at least 30 cm for the reserve;
- on geotextiles pour rubble, so that its height is equal to 2/3 of the trench height;
- gravel overlap geotextile overlapping due to a deferred stock of 30 cm;
- from above pour sand and soil;
- do not forget to make biases throughout the trenches.
Geotextile trenches are tough and durable
This type of drainage implies the organization of an almost complete sewer or sewer. Usually at its construction use plastic pipes designed specifically for these purposes. They are made with perforations so that water evenly flows into them and is removed outside the submerged zone.
Before we talk about the installation of such pipes, let's get acquainted with one important element of such a system - the drainage well.
The drainage well is the central element of the site’s drainage system, which ensures its operation, and also serves to monitor the condition of the pipes and their cleaning. In the presence of water-absorbing soil drainage well along the way plays the role of filtering and absorbing installation. The functions of drainage wells are divided into three types:
- viewing and turning;
- absorption (filtering);
- water intake (accumulative).
Pivot wells - these installations are mounted in places of turns of drainage pipes. For example, near the corners of the foundation, elevation changes, the nodal points of convergence of several pipes or where the blockage accumulates. Through inspection wells visual control over the state of the system is carried out and free access to it is provided. Both of these types of wells provide an airtight lid and bottom.
Their diameter is chosen in such a way that the drainage system can be flushed with water pressure under pressure. Usually it is 300-500 mm. If powerful drainage is organized, the diameter of the manholes can be increased to 1 m.
On flat sections, the optimal distance between wells is approximately 40-50 m. If pipes often make turns on the section, then wells need to be installed above each turn.
Filtering, or absorptive, the well is established if necessary and depending on the type of soil on the site. Water entering such a well is collected in a cumulative "capsule", passes through the filter layer (gravel) and goes through the openings into the ground. Accordingly, the soil at the site of installation of such a well must have a high water-absorbing capacity in order to cope with the volume of water that enters the well. Coarse sand is best for such wells.
Tight accumulative well It is used in areas with high groundwater levels, clay sediments and soil with low water absorption capacity. Recently, such wells have been installed in those places where it is difficult to drill to reach the water intake layer and arrange vertical drainage.
The storage well is the end point of the entire system. As it is filled, the collected water is pumped out by a drainage pump and discharged into the nearest ditch, out of the boundaries of the site or used for irrigation.
First, you should design a general view of the pipe drainage system. Professionals perform geodetic survey of the site using special tools. But if the relief of the land plot is simple, you can do it on your own, even without using levels and range finders. To do this, do the following:
- make a detailed site plan at an appropriate scale;
- after heavy rain, apply the location and direction of the main streams of water. Fix the confluence of the streams;
- determine the lowest point of the site where the drainage well will be installed;
- digging in the direction of the streams, dig out the trenches and place the ditches "herringbone", that is, all short branches should "flow" into one central trench;
- dig trenches, keeping a slope of 0.5–3 cm per each meter of length. Place the pipes at a depth of 30-60 cm;
- test the trench. Either wait for a heavy rain and see if the water is stagnant, or fill the grooves with water from a bucket and see if it flows in the right direction. If not, correct the system.
Pipe drainage system - the most modern and reliable of the known
The following list of works looks like this:
- Lay geotextiles at the bottom of the trenches. The width of the material should completely cover the bottom and walls of the trench and protrude beyond its borders by 30 cm;
- on geotextiles lay a layer of crushed stone 20 cm thick;
- lay pipes over the rubble, connecting them with tees and nozzles;
- for the central drain use a corrugated pipe with a diameter of 90-110 mm, and for the supply pipe - pipes with a diameter of 60-70 mm;
- bring the main pipe to the central well;
- cover the pipe with a layer of rubble and cover it with geotextile, and then fill in the rubble and sand and tamp them down.
For arranging the drainage well, plastic pipes of the required diameter are often used with connections for draining. Such pipes can last for quite a long time, they have a low weight, convenient location of connecting elements, and they can be assembled in a matter of hours. The only downside is the high price.
Modern suburban area is difficult to imagine without a drainage system. It removes excess wastewater and groundwater from the site and allows you to enjoy the freshness and healthy microclimate of your country farm.