Spraying of potato tops and collecting Colorado "whales" in jars is a favorite summer game of summer residents of all times and peoples. But are there more effective ways to protect potatoes from pests?
Potatoes are affected by dozens of different viruses, fungi, bacteria and almost two hundred pests, incl. and worms. We will not turn the article into an encyclopedia of disease, but let us dwell on the most common dangers that await the tuber culture that many people love, and tell you how to deal with them.
Major Potato Diseases
Potato diseases can be viral, fungal or bacterial in nature. Infected tubers lose their appearance, and often due to decay, their shelf life is significantly reduced.
The causative agents of the disease are the simplest organisms, which occupy an intermediate position between bacteria and fungi. Young, growing thin-skinned tubers are particularly susceptible to scab. The disease is manifested on the surface of the tubers in the form of dry, rough ulcers. With a strong defeat ulcers grow, merge and form a rough crust. Scab destroys the tissue of the eyes, which reduces germination, and during storage, the affected potato rots.
It is much easier to prevent scab damage than to subsequently treat a vegetable garden. Therefore, select only healthy tubers for planting.
The disease has a fungal character. Infection affects all parts of the plant, from sprouts and roots to stolons, stems and tubers. The characteristic difference of tubers affected by rhizoctoniosis is the presence of hard, almost black lumps, which are easily peeled off with a fingernail. It is easiest to detect the fact of infection by a fungus during germination. On sprouts ulcers of rich brown color are formed, which grow and can lead to the death of the seedling. The diseased plant develops slowly, withers prematurely, the leaves may curl and turn red, and air tubers develop on the stems. The disease leads to a decrease in the rate of germination, as well as a loss of up to 20% of the crop.
Aphids affect potato tops. But its potential harm to potatoes is not limited to this. This small insect pest is a carrier of viral diseases.
The causative agent of late blight is a fungus that affects both the stems, leaves, and the tubers themselves. Another name for the disease is "potato rot." In the high-risk zone are early varieties. It appears most often after flowering, in late July - early August. The first signs in the form of dark brown spots on the lower, protected from the sun leaves, appear after flowering. It is possible to distinguish this disease from others with similar symptoms by white bloom on the lower part of the leaf of the tops. The danger associated with rotting tubers during storage. Moreover, typical spots appear on tubers only 2-3 weeks later after harvesting.
In the fight against late blight also more attention should be paid to the prevention of the disease. Do not plant potatoes next to tomatoes. One of the methods of preventing infection is preplant germination, because at this stage, diseased tubers are easily distinguished.
Folk methods of dealing with the Colorado potato beetle and wireworm
The most famous potato pests are the Colorado potato beetle and the wireworm. Popular methods of dealing with them are diverse and attract by their simplicity, accessibility and environmental friendliness. But, to be honest, not always they can boast of high efficiency.
Fighting the Colorado potato beetle
Colorado potato beetle in the face know absolutely everyone who grows potatoes. It multiplies rapidly: the female lays up to 500 eggs in the lower parts of the foliage. Already at 5-17 days of them appear the larvae, which cause the main harm to the culture. Insect destroys the leaf part of the plant, which reduces the yield. After all, any violation of the growth of foliage negatively affects the development of tubers, since this causes the outflow of nutrients from tubers to the vegetative mass.
Beetles hibernate in the soil, which leads to their accumulation at the site during the permanent cultivation of potatoes in one place.
Since the Colorado potato beetle is considered to be almost the most important enemy of potatoes, quite a lot of folk methods of combating it have gathered.
- Manual collection. If the landing area is not too large, you can collect the larvae and adults manually. However, this takes time and does not give any guarantee against repeated defeat.
Crush the beetles in the aisle is not worth it. So you just push the pest into the soil, from where it will easily get out and continue to feast on your potatoes. It is better to collect insects in a jar with a strong salt solution.
- Dusting. A good result gives dusting potato bushes sifted with birch ash (10 kg per hundred). Carry out the procedure while the leaves are wet with dew or rain. Beetles and larvae die in about 1-2 days. Repeat processing 1 time in 2 weeks before flowering and 1 time per month after flowering. Strengthen the effect by sprinkling ashes on the ground between the bushes.
- Spraying with herbal decoctions and infusions. There are many recipes decoctions and infusions, which, according to gardeners, do not like the Colorado potato beetle. As a basis for the working solution can be used walnut, birch tar, leaves of poplar, celandine, bitter pepper, tomato tops, tobacco and garlic. Spraying is carried out in dry, windless weather, preferably in the evening, so that under the influence of the sun the compounds do not lose insecticidal properties too quickly.
It is difficult to talk about the effectiveness of plant solutions. However, one thing is for sure: it is necessary to use different recipes, since beetles quickly adapt to stimuli.
- Planting Repellent Plants. Colorado pests are not too fond of the smell of some plants, such as marigold, borage, calendula, coriander, nasturtium, night violet. Islets of fragrant herbs among potato plantations can scare away pests.
Fighting Wireworm (larvae click beetles)
The pest lives in the ground and damages the roots, stolons, stem bases and potato tubers. The larva makes moves in the tuber, which leads to decay. It is easy to detect wireworms when digging the soil, because It has a bright color. The damage from it increases in dry weather with a moisture deficit.
- Autumn soil digging. The wire has a bright yellow color, so the worms are quite easy to detect when digging the ground. Found larvae collect and destroy.
- Use bait. As bait for the wireworm, the beet, carrot or potato slices are buried to a depth of 7-10 cm around the garden. Wooden sticks are stuck into each slice to make it easier to find a trap (3 pieces are needed per 1 square meter). A few days later, the vegetable slices are dug together with the pests accumulated on them and burned. Processing is usually carried out 10-15 days before planting potatoes.
- Soil liming. The wireworm does not like land with a high pH level. But, overdosing with lime dressing, you can attract the scab.
- Wheatgrass Destruction. This weed is one of the favorite wireworm delicacies. Fighting a plant helps reduce pest numbers.
Chemistry on potato protection
Modern insecticides allow you to quickly deal with pests. True, it is impossible to call them natural. Processing has to be repeated several times, because contact drugs are washed away by rain. At the same time, it is impossible to overdo it with chemical dressing so as not to harm the soil and the crop itself.
Most drugs have a complex effect and are aimed at combating not one pest or disease, but several at once.
Processing methods are also different. It can be:
- soaking or spraying the tubers before planting;
- watering the bottom of the furrow during planting;
- spraying tops as pests appear;
- soil granulation during planting;
- spraying tops during the growing season;
- spraying the soil before germination, etc.
The choice of fungicides and insecticides for potatoes should be made taking into account the dominant disease (pest). A good remedy should meet the following requirements:
- complex effects;
- proven efficacy;
- minimum processing ratio, i.e. preservation of fungicidal and insecticidal properties under the influence of rain, sun, etc .;
- economical consumption;
- safety for humans.
Tubery: potato protection for the whole season
Most potato preservatives (both popular and chemical) are used after planting the crop. And this is one of the reasons why they are not always effective. You will, of course, destroy the bugs collected in a jar, but no one will forbid other "whales" to fly from someone else's field to your clean garden. In turn, spraying contact chemicals must be repeated after each rain, and system chemicals tend to accumulate in plants. In general, it is not surprising that many people come to the conclusion that it is easier to buy potatoes than messing with it all summer.
But still there is effective salvation from the Colorado potato beetle and wireworm. These are the means by which the tubers themselves are processed before planting. And one of such products is the insect fungicidal disinfectant Klubnashit from the company "Your farm". The effectiveness of the product is proven by testing.
Arguments in favor of "Klubnechita"
Someone will say that Oatmeal - this is chemistry. We do not deny: the drug KS imidacloprid and pencycuron are really included in the preparation Pesticides are moderately dangerous for humans, but by the time of harvesting potatoes of medium and late ripeness (with a ripening period of 85-115 days from the day of emergence) the influence of chemicals is weakened, and the tubers can be eaten without any risk to health.
Let us dwell on the merits of the drug.
- Provides protection for the entire season.. You do not have to re-process or regularly go around the site with a jar for Colorado beetles. The period of the drug is 2-2.5 months.
- Protects from several main enemies of a potato at once. The tuber is effective in protecting the crop against the Colorado potato beetle, wireworm, aphid, scab, and rhizoctoniosis. Due to the treatment, the pests do not hinder the healthy development of the crop and the formation of the crop.
- Saves not only your nerves and time, but also money. The drug is available in ampoules of 10 ml, as well as in bottles of 25 and 60 ml. It is convenient and economical to use. For example, a 60 ml bottle is enough to handle 60 kg of tubers (approximately 2 weave).
- Does not harm other cultures. When processing potato tops with a spray gun, there is a risk of chemicals getting to the nearby crops. However, this does not threaten you when using a tuber protectant. Since the planting material needs to be processed directly, you can easily find a safe place for this procedure.
Mode of application
The drug is tuber is diluted in accordance with the instructions on the package. Consumption rate: 60 ml in 0.6-0.85 l of water. The solution is well stirred and poured into the spray.
Processing is done immediately before landing. Tubers are placed on plastic wrap and sprayed. The flow rate of the working fluid is 100 ml per 10 kg of planting material.
Potatoes are grown in Russia for a long time. Therefore, there are a lot of ways to protect it from pests. Some of them are more effective, others are more natural ... And which variant of the fight against the Colorado potato beetle and the wireworm will you choose?