Fruit (monilial) rot is the most common fungal disease of the apple tree. It is capable of damaging the fruit both in the trees and during storage. How to protect the plants?
To find an effective method of dealing with monilioz, the first thing you need to know the enemy in the "face".
Signs of rot on apples
First, the rot on the fruit manifests itself in the form of a small brown spot, which quickly grows and covers the entire fruit. The flesh of the apple turns brown, softens and becomes unfit for human consumption.
After 7-10 days on the affected surface appear yellowish-beige pads, which are arranged in concentric circles. This is the spores of the fungus.
Fruit rot develops more actively in warm weather and air humidity over 75%
The infection enters the fetus through lesions on the skin. Also, the source of the disease is the affected fruits left on the tree and the branches dried from moniliosis, which were not removed during sanitary pruning.
The first signs of the disease occur when the worm is found. At the same time, summer varieties of apple trees suffer from the disease earlier, and winter ones - later.
As the crop ripens, the number of affected fruit increases. If a rotten apple remains hanging on a tree, then on the stem of the fungus penetrates into the fruit twig, fruit and affects the nearby shoots.
The warm development of fruit rot is favored by warm and humid weather, as well as thickened plantings.
Prevention of Moniliasis
In order to prevent fruit rot, trees should be pruned regularly (in spring and autumn), this will improve the illumination and breathability of the crown. You should also promptly remove drying branches and fruits, which appeared the first signs of rotting.
It is imperative to take care of tree circles, feed trees with macro and microelements. These measures reduce the risk of apple damage, not only fruit rot, but also other dangerous diseases.
In addition, during harvesting should be careful not to damage the fruit. It is best to store apples in a dry place at a temperature of about 0 ° C.
Fighting apple fruit rot
With the help of proper agricultural technology, it is not always possible to avoid the spread of moniliosis. Therefore, often without the use of fungicides can not do.
To prevent early spring infection, trees should be sprayed with copper-containing preparations (for example, 3% Bordeaux liquid) or Horus (according to the instructions).
When processing apple Bordeaux liquids, for the best effect, lime can be added to the solution at the rate of 300 g per 10 liters of water.
3-4 days before the start of flowering, the apple tree should again be sprayed with Bordeaux liquid, but already 1%. Instead, the drug can be applied 1% suspension of colloidal sulfur. If suddenly you notice a drop, spraying needs to be repeated.
In the autumn, after harvesting, it is necessary to treat the apple trees with a solution of copper sulphate (100 g per 10 l of water) - 2-3 liters per tree. This will help destroy the remnants of the infection.
Unfortunately, at present, there are no varieties of apple trees that are completely resistant to moniliosis. Less affected Slavyanka, Pepin saffron, Parmen winter gold. Therefore, if your apple trees each year become infected with fruit rot, give preference to these varieties.